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Jij is the full form of the pronoun, and je is the careless pronunciation that is very often used instead but is only applicable when it's unstressed. This is exactly the same phenomenon as with is and 's in English, only with a pronoun rather than a verb. And like 's, which is ambiguous and can also stand for has, je can also stand for jou[w] (your and object case of you).
When people speak about French they can normally be assumed to be referring more or less to the standard pronunciation used in the French media and taught practically everywhere throughout the world. I am not aware of any modern pronunciation of French in which je sounds like Dutch je. At least the consonant is different, and in standard French as well as many (if not most) dialects, the vowel is also quite different.
As a native Dutch speaker, I can say the first is right (the e is like French "je" or "le"), but the ij sound is not like yay.. unfortunately, I don't know any language with the same sound as "ij" (or "ei", which is pronounced exactly the same as "ij") Edit: I'm only referring to the vowel sounds here
"Je drinkt melk" and "Jullie drinken melk" are both correct translations of "You drink milk" in general (when you don't know from how many people are addressed). "Jullie drinkt melk" and "Jullie drink melk" are not even grammatical, though, because the verb must agree with the subject of the sentence.
Je is singular (addressing a single person). Jullie is plural (addressing more than one person). You need to choose the correct one depending on the context. When translating from English, you can often choose between the two, but then you must still make sure that you use the correct verb form: "je drinkt" or "jullie drinken".
This correspondence is not correct. Our sentence uses second person singular. Early Modern English still had it, but Modern English has replaced it completely by the 'more polite' second person plural. In Early Modern English:
- Je/jou drinkt melk = Thou drinkest milk.
- Hij/zij drinkt melk = He/she drinketh milk.
So drinkt can correspond to either drinkest or drinketh in Early Modern English.
Another complication is that Dutch drops the second person singular -t in questions: Drink je melk? = Drinkest thou milk?
No, it's just not true that there is an exact correspondence between drinks (vs. drink) and drinkt (vs. drink). Alcyone_maia initially thought so, and made her comment when she realised that maybe it's not as easy as that.
The second person is you drink in English but jij drinkt in Dutch. I just mentioned Early Modern English because this makes it obvious where the difference comes from.
Thee and thou were still used by Shakespeare and in the original version of the King James Bible. That's Early Modern English in both cases, not Middle English.
You can compare examples of Middle English (hard to understand for modern readers) and Early Modern English (easy to understand) here: http://www.public.asu.edu/~gelderen/hel/textlist.html
(There is also Old English, also known as Anglo-Saxon. It is very similar to Old German because it is the language that the Anglo-Saxons brought to England from their home region in North-West Germany. Old English and Old German are almost impossible to understand for both English speakers and German/Dutch speakers. Old English / Old German is almost as far removed from English and German as Classical Latin is from modern Italian, French, Spanish etc. And it has a similarly complicated grammar.)
- What is the difference?
- What's the difference?
- What's that got to do with anything?
You see, English has exactly the same phenomenon. How would you explain to a learner of English what the difference between is and 's is?
Is is sort of the normal form of the word. When it's not stressed, you can use 's instead - but you don't have to. Oh, and 's can also stand for has.
Jij is sort of the normal form of the word. When it's not stressed, you can use "je" instead - but you don't have to. Oh, and je can also stand for jouw.
English has -s for third person singular. Dutch instead has -t for third person singular - but also for second person singular so long as the sentence is not inverted.
Example for drink in the order Dutch- Shakespeare English - modern English. Singular only:
- ik drink - I drink - I drink
- drink ik? - drink I? - do I drink?
- jij drinkt - thou drinkest - you drink
- drink jij? - drinkest thou? - do you drink?
- hij drinkt - he drinketh - he drinks
- drinkt hij? - drinketh he? - does he drink?
(As you can see, Shakespeare English is really the most regular language in this respect. We just get different endings for first, second and third person. In modern English, there are less endings but do periphrasis for questions has become obligatory. In Dutch, there are less endings but one of them is dropped when the word order is inverted.)
I already answered that question for native speakers of English. If the part about Shakespeare English confused you, here it is again without that:
All of this is about first/second/third person singular. (For plural we always need the plural form drinken.)
- -t is never used for first person
- -t is normally used for second person, but not when the word order is inverted as in a question
- -t is always used for third person
- ik drink - I drink
- drink ik? - do I drink?
- jij drinkt - you (single person) drink
- drink jij? - do you (single person) drink?
- hij drinkt - he drinks
- drinkt hij? - does he drink?
Can someone help me here . Drinkt in english is drinks which is plural as i know it . And they give me a question in dutch " Je drinkt melk " in english. So in the options they wrote down, there no plural word for drinks ,only drink which i wrote down " You drink milk " and it says correct. So what i want to know is why not " You drinks milk " that i know in english is not correct to say " You drinks milk " so in dutch why " drinkt " ?
In English, drinks is absolutely not a plural. It is the third person singular conjugated form of the verb drink. "Plural" means "more than one". It does not mean "add an -s at the end".
In most European languages you must learn relatively complicated verb conjugation tables. English is unusually simple: All conjugated forms look exactly like the infinitive (in this case: drink), except for the third person singular form which gets -s at the end.
Dutch is slightly more complicated but still easier than most other European languages:
All plural forms are identical with the infinitive:
- 1st person plural: Wij drinken. (We drink.)
- 2nd person plural: Jullie drinken. (You [all] drink.)
- 3rd person plural: Zij drinken. (They drink.)
For all singular forms we must remove the infinitive suffix -en, resulting in drink. For third person singular and in most cases also for second person singular we then have to add a new suffix -t:
- 1st person singular: Ik drink. (I drink.)
- 2nd person singular: Jij drinkt. (You [alone] drink.) - But no suffix when the word order is inverted: Drink jij? (Do you drink?)
- 3rd person singular: Hij/zij drinkt. (He/she drinks.)