Neither do they feature Tips & Notes, which are super important :((
"kein" is an indefinite article, so the sentence "Ich kenne kein Vogel" would mean "I know no bird" or "I don't know a bird"
EDIT: As pointed out by mizinamo, I should've said "Ich kenne keinen Vogel" due to "Vogel" being a masculine noun; however, my explanation of why "kein" is incorrect holds true. :)
It was ‘to wit’; it's from the same source as German ‘wissen’, Swedish ‘veta’ and Dutch ‘weten’.
G. ‘kennen’, as well as S. ‘känna’ and D. ‘kennen’, started out as causatives for the same word that gave rise to English ‘can’. Originally it meant ‘to make known’. Some E. dialects still have ‘to ken’ which may mean ‘to know, perceive, understand, discover by sight (obsolete), catch the/a sight of (obsolete)’ which has the same source.
Related to E. ‘can’ are G. ‘können’, S. ‘kunna’ and D. ‘kunnen’. Originally it meant ‘to know, to be able to’, but its current derivatives only retain the latter meaning.
It is believed the PIE sources of ‘can’ and ‘to know’ are closely related.
"Känna" in Swedish also means "to feel" (both emotionally and physically), AND to know ("hon känner den här skogen väl", "she knows this forest well" - though it sounds just slightly old and formal to me, a native Swedish speaker born early 80:s. Adding a "till" after "känner" in the S sentence here would tip the meaning slightly to "...knows ABOUT" [the existence of the forest] but could still refer to her knowledge of the area).
I seem to remember the German "Kennen" could be used in all these senses, too - could anyone confirm?
yeah, there are some similarities. another one is the gender in nouns, though it is sometimes the opposite gender (die Sonne = el sol / der Vogel = el pájaro). in Mexico we use "ustedes" instead of "vosotros", and also the conjugation of verbs changes: "ustedes pueden" / "vosotros podéis"
"Ich kenne den Vogel nicht", means "I don't know the bird". If you say "ich kenne nicht den Vogel", you basically say the same thing, but what the average german would think is that you don't know the bird, but you know something else, maybe: "... sondern das Pferd".
This example is tricky and not really clear. A better example would be: "Ich esse die Suppe nicht" That means: "I don't eat the soup". For example, maybe because it's still too hot. Or you don't like it.
When you say: "Ich esse nicht die Suppe", Your also practically don't eat the soup, but you probably eat something else. You can here the difference in the tone of a german person.
If you want to say it more correctly though, you should say: "ich esse nicht eine Suppe... sondern einen Fisch".
That might be a response to a question - "do you eat soup?"'when you're eating a fish.
Hopefully you can read this and answer it for me, if not, someone else please. In the context of "I don't eat the soup, but I eat something else." Could you still say, "Ich esse die Suppe nicht... sondern einen Fisch." ?? Or is "nicht" restricted to the fashions you have described?
In that example, you would say Ich esse nicht die Suppe, sondern einen Fisch. This corresponds quite well to John33n's example, I thought. If you said Ich esse die Suppe nicht, sondern... I would expect a totally different action, like ...gehe direkt ins Bett because you've really negated the verb (you don't eat) rather than the noun (not the soup).
Don't be silly. Of course you eat soup. Just because it is a liquid doesn't mean it isn't food. Maybe you do drink it, but you're also eating it too. You probably don't chew it, or masticate it. Unless it is a hearty, chunky soup. Which some people might call more akin to a stew. Hmm... maybe I'm just hungry.
I do not know "the" bird implies familiarity, or a title. I do not know "that" bird implies now familiarity. You are familiar with our planets moon, which is "the" moon, not "that" moon. Same could be said when talking about your family car: "everyone get to the car" instead of "everyone get to 'that' car"
Why the translation for "den" can now be either "the" and "that"? I have just been told that "den" is the accusative form for "der" in the sentence "Wir waschen den Apfel" and it could only accept the translation "the", not "that". I thought it was the case again, can anybody explain me that? Bitte!
Historically, the German definite articles started out as ‘that’ pronouns, and they still look the same. (German is no exception by the way.) There are still differences though. In pronunciation, ‘the book’ = ‘das Búch’ (I marked the stress) but ‘that book’ = ‘dás Búch’. And the pronouns can be used by themselves: ‘Was ist das?’
I think I'll try to explain this by example.
1) Ich kenne den Vogel nicht. = I don't know the bird. (But see my comment above.)
2) Ich weiß dass es kein Vogel ist. = I know it isn't a bird. (In older texts you'll find ‘daß’ instead of ‘dass’ but that's wrong now.)
3) Ich kenne keinen Vogel. = I know no bird(s).
Sentence 1 is the one Duo asked. ‘Nicht’ is a word which inverts the meaning of another word. For adjectives and nouns, it precedes the word and is often written together with it as one word.
The dictionary Duden discourages this for adjectives and writes ‘nicht staatlich’ (although ‘nichtstaatlich’ isn't wrong). ‘Staatlich’ means ‘belonging or referring to the state’ so ‘nicht staatlich’ means ‘not belonging or referring to the state’ = ‘private’ as the word is used in e.g. ‘private enterprise’.
Nouns are a bit trickier since you don't generally want a noun clause to refer to let's say everything but apples. Instead it becomes ‘not, but still related’. For example, ‘Nichtdeutscher’ means ‘someone who is not a German’ and ‘Nichtlieferung’ (from ‘Lieferung’ = ‘delivery’, ‘shipment’) means ‘no delivery (when it should have taken place or was expected to take place)’.
And now verbs. Let's start with subordinate clauses. ‘... dass ich den Vogel nicht kenne.’ = ‘... that I don't know the bird.’ Note that again it precedes the word it modifies. And because verbs are frequently the root of their clause, inverting them logically has the effect of inverting the whole clause, in this case everything after ‘dass’ = ‘that’. However, now comes the tricky bit. When the verb moves leftward, ‘nicht’ stays behind! ‘Ich kenne den Vogel nicht.’ Note that because ‘nicht’ modifies the root word of the entire sentence, it means the opposite of ‘Ich kenne den Vogel.’ By way of a final example, here's a question: ‘Kennst du den Vogel nicht?’
Sentence 2 is the one you were shooting for. This illustrates the difference between ‘kennen’ and ‘wissen’.
‘Kennen’ means ‘to have knowledge of’ or ‘to be acquainted with’. Examples (look up the words to figure out what they mean): ‘Ich kenne das Ende der Geschichte.’ ‘Ich kenne Helga.’ ‘Kennst Du die Berge Tirols?’ ‘Kennst du die Unterschiede zwischen Spinnen und Insekten?’
‘Wissen’ means ‘to know a fact’. Examples: ‘Ich weiß, wo dein Haus wohnt.’ (Look this one up, I deliberately started with an odd one.) ‘Ich weiß wie man Vektoren addiert.’ ‘Weißt du schon Bescheid?’ ‘Wie weißt du das?’ ‘Sie weiß was sie will.’
As you see, these two verbs have very different meanings and it's quite odd that English chooses to use one verb for both meanings.
Sentence 3, as an afterthought, shows you what to say if you, rather than not knowing a particular bird but leaving the possibility that you know others open, want to state once and for all that, no, you don't know any birds. ‘Kein’ = ‘no’ in the sense of ‘not one’, ‘nothing of’. Examples: ‘Ich habe kein Geld.’ ‘Das sind keine guten Aussichten.’ (This is somewhat less strong and maybe more polite than: ‘Das sind schlechte Aussichten.’ You cannot modify ‘gut’ with ‘nicht’ when you use it attributively, except in exceptional circumstances. Don't write this: ‘Das sind nicht gute Aussichten.’ But this is fine as it's a predicate: ‘Die Aussichten sind nicht gut.’) ‘Das weiß ja keiner.’ ‘Wir haben keine Bananen heute.’
So you see it's quite simple. (That's why it took a page of text to explain of course.)
Hi G.P., you're statement "As you see, these two verbs have very different meanings and it's quite odd that English chooses to use one verb for both meanings." is not quite true. I am relatively new to German but we have a number of verbs for knowledge in English and I think that there is a clear relationship of Kennen and Wissen to the English verbs to 'Know' and to 'Understand' ......
example: I know Brad Pitt example: I understand that boats are propelled by propellers.
Although confusingly you could also say 'I KNOW that boats are propelled by propellers'
I think there is a vast difference between ‘wissen’ (to know a fact) and ‘verstehen’ / ‘begreifen’ (to understand; ‘begreifen’ implies a deeper level of understanding than ‘verstehen’).
Ich weiß dass Schiffe von Propeller angetrieben werden.
I know that ships are propelled by propellers (but maybe not what a propeller actually physically does).
Ich verstehe dass Schiffe von Propeller angetrieben werden.
I understand that ships are propelled by propellers (maybe because I know how propellers work and I've seen that ships have propellers).
Ich begreife dass Schiffe von Propeller angetrieben werden.
I understand that ships are propelled by propellers (because I know how propellers work, what the advantages are in comparison to rowing, and so on).
Sometimes you can use the latter two interchangeably but there is always a big difference with the first. Let's have some more examples:
Ich weiß dass der Lehrer unglücklich ist.
I know that the teacher is unhappy (because he has a kind of shell-shocked look on his face and he sobs a lot).
Ich verstehe dass der Lehrer unglücklich ist.
I understand that the teacher is unhappy (because if I were standing in his shoes I would be unhappy too).
Das Menschen so fies sein können, kann ich wirklich nicht begreifen.
That people can be so mean, is impossible for me to comprehend.
Ich wusste nicht mal wie ich heiße.
I didn't even know what my name was supposed to be.
Das geht ganz einfach nicht in meinen Kopf, das kann ich einfach nicht begreifen, nein.
You can do the last one yourself.
Not sure if sarcasm or that's what you really think. If it's the latter, I'm sorry, but I have to disagree. As any language enthusiast would say, learning a new language is pretty much learning a new tongue as well as brushing up your own. Someone once said that you never really knew your native tongue until you've learned another, and I agree.
If you have difficulties with the language you're learning from (i.e., English), then wouldn't it be more difficult to understand a new one?
Not really. Kennen is a verb to denote familiarity so normally you would have an object. If someone asked you if you know a person in English you wouldn't say "No, I don't know." You would say something like "No, I don't know him/her." If you want to say you don't know something, you would say "Ich weiß es nicht" where the verb is wissen.
It may not sound right when you translate the German words to English word-by-word, but German word order is just different from English. At first the German sentence may sound weird but that'll pass. Besides, the English version is pretty weird too: ‘I don't know the/that bird.’ What's that ‘do’ doing there!?
Look, I know how English grammar works with respect to the use of ‘do’, but the fact of the matter is that it's a silly meaningless word that serves no semantic purpose. Given how the rest of English grammar works (not and other negatives tend to modify whatever comes after it, and things that modify the action can be, and often are, put directly in front of the inflected verb) you'd expect something like *‘I not know the bird’.
Furthermore, contrary to what you just said, ‘I don't know the bird’ is in modern English not actually the negative of ‘I do know the bird’. That would be ‘I really don't know the bird’ or ‘I do not know the bird’ or something similar.
Think of it this way for the time being. A lot of declarative statements in German are negated by putting "nicht" at the end.
"I know that bird" would be the affirmative.
"I know that bird not" would be the negative.
This is a generally safe assumption with simple statements that are declarations of fact.
I asked the same. Though I don't think they have to be hot to call them a bird in third Person.
e.g. Have you seen this woman (Shows Picture)? (answer) Yeah that bird walked past here about an hour ago.
It is quite colloquial and only used in certain regions of england, in this context, but doesnt have to mean shes "hot".
Though if you say she "is a bird"/"is a right bird", that is 100% meaning that you think they are attractive.
Related comment: search for ‘Ich weiß dass Schiffe von Propeller angetrieben werden.’
kennen = connaître = to know someone / some object &c., to be acquainted with
können = pouvoir / savoir (for a skill) = to be able to, to have the ability, to know how to (for a skill), to be capable of, to be possible
wissen = savoir = to know a fact, to know for sure, to be aware of
verstehen = entendre, comprendre = to understand, to comprehend
(sich verstehen = s'entendre = to get along)
begreifen = entendre, comprendre, saisir = to understand, to comprehend, to realise, to grasp
‘Begreifen’ implies a deeper level of understanding than ‘verstehen’; see my other comment for some example sentences.
Sorry, but the sentence doesn't mean that what is being show isn't a bird. It means that the speaker doesn't know which bird it is. A closer translation (for more accurate meaning) would be 'I am not familiar with the bird'. Let's assume you spent 10 hours swotting a book like 'Songbirds of Northern Europe' and your tutor came in and showed you a picture of a bird, that wasn't in that book. Then such a phrase would be used.
My guess is that the position of nicht emphasizes what is not known, rather than the verb.
After reading the comments, I still didn't understand why the sentence wasn't: Ich kenne nicht den Vogel. I looked at various websites outside of Duolingo and finally found an explanation that I could understand. The explanation was: "nicht" follows a pronoun or an object which can be substituted by a pronoun Any comments on if this is correct? Website: deutschseite.de/grammatik/negation/negation
It would be rather impolite: https://de.pons.com/%C3%BCbersetzung?q=vogel&l=deen&in=&lf=de
like "I don't know that bloke". I rarely heard it referred to a woman. Usually it refers to males.