The concept of "de word in plural" (or in singular) doesn't make sense. There are het words and de words, named after the definite articles they take in singular.
There is no such thing in Dutch as nouns that change their gender between singular and plural. In fact, if there were such words there would be no way to notice since het words and de words behave in precisely the same way in the plural. The singular articles are het and de, depending on the gender. The plural article is always de. (For nouns that exist only in plural, it doesn't make much sense to speak about gender.)
There are some rules of thumb that you may come across on this site or elsewhere, but the bad news is that these are usually not absolute and sometimes contradict each other, and they cover only a fraction of all nouns anyway. In general, you have to learn the gender along with every Dutch noun. The usual strategy is to learn the definite article along with the noun. This way you get the gender practically for free. (Unless it's an obvious cognate of an English word that you would not have to learn specifically otherwise.)
No, just like Frauen is different to Damen in German, and well, women is different to ladies in Enlglish, vrouwen can't be the definition for "ladies" ;)
For most 'R's in Dutch, like in some other languages, you have to roll your tongue. It feels natural for some, and unnatural for others.
If you're in the latter group of people and can't roll your tongue for the R, here is an article that I know has helped a lot of people, hopefully it will be of use to you ^^
Well, in French:
The "R" differs from the dutch, for example you pronounce the "R" of "train" in french with a ligth "R", not a roll of the tongue. However no words in the french language are supposed (note 'supposed) to have a rolled "r". If you hear someone roll an r while speaking french, it does not mean they are wrong, it just means they are probably either from a foreign francophone country or because their mother tongue uses rolled "r"'s.
So basically, to the extent of my knowledge, however limited it may be, no. There are no instances in the "Homeland" french language where you must roll an r.
As for spanish, I cannot say, I am not studying spanish. However I have heard some of their Rs and can spot here and there some instances where they do use rolled Rs.
Hope it Helps ^^
That is correct. 'Vrouw' is pronounced like 'frow' but with a rolled 'r'.
Pronounciation is more or less equal to the pronounciation in english. the "v" in vrouw is like the v in english, e.g. "vomit". And the "f "is like in first. Then comes the rrrr...It should be a relaxed rolling r comming from the back of the tongue. More relaxed, softer than in Spanish. Englsh and american people have a tendancy to combine it with a G, " gggr.." . Not good!
No, both Dutch and English are present tense. Apparently you misread the word women (plural) as woman (singular).
- The woman reads the newspaper. = De vrouw leest de krant.
- The women read (present tense) the newspaper. = De vrouwen lezen de krant.
- The woman read the newspaper. = De vrouw las de krant.
- The women read (past tense) the newspaper. = De vrouwen lazen de krant.
It used to be possible to disable the microphone on the web version, with the same result for the Android version. The setting is no longer there, but you may find it elsewhere. If nothing else helps, you might try disabling the speaker under https://www.duolingo.com/settings/account .
I always write newspaper instead of "Journal" because i'm scared if Duo punish me
You are allowed to get one letter wrong. If you wrote 'papier' instead of 'paper', that uses up your allowances. Then if you add a plural s that doesn't belong there because 'de krant' is singular, that's the second letter.
But even if you wrote 'newspapers', it will probably still be recognised as wrong because Duolingo only allows you one letter wrong if the result isn't another, incorrect word. Since 'newspapers' is a legitimate word probably known to Duolingo, but not correct in this context, Duolingo recognises it as a genuine mistake rather than just a typo.
Yes. This is basically correct:
- ik lees
- jij leest (Note the extra -t!)
- hij/zij leest (Note the extra -t!)
- wij lezen
- jullie lezen
- zij lezen
The extra -t for second/third person singular is similar to the extra -s that third person singular gets in English. (Second person singular no longer exists in English.)
It corresponds to -[e]st for second person singular and -[e]th for third person singular in Early Modern English (Shakespeare, King James Bible):
- I read
- thou readest
- he/she readeth
The same verb form that is used for the plural (in this case lezen) is also used as the infinitive. It's the same in English, only less obvious because in English (but not in Dutch) the same verb form is also used for first person singular.
As I said, in English but not in Dutch the infinitve is also used for first person singular. Conversely, in Dutch but not in English the infinitive is also used as the present participle (used for gerund and progressive):
- ik ben aan het lezen
- lezen is leuk
This corresponds to English:
- I am reading
- reading is fun