"You are a boy."
Translation:Je bent een jongen.
U is the formal form of you. As you would usually use jongen (boy) for a child, you wouldn't use u. U is usually used when speaking to adults thatbyou don't know very well or that are much older than you. (This last part differs per person there are people that use u when talkong to their parents and there are people that don't, that depends on what they are used to). The litteral sentence 'u bent een jongen' would therefore never be used but I hope thos gived an idea of when to use u instead of je/jij.
I understand that there is a difference between Jij and Je, but in the tips it says that don't worry about Je and Jij because it will be discussed in a different lesson, but we are getting counted wrong because we don't know the difference. How can we tell if Duo wants it emphasized just by reading?
Je is basically just a careless pronunciation of jij. (This phenomenon is very similar to contractions in English.) Or of jou[w]. Therefore it's more general. If you don't know whether you need to use jij, jou or jouw in your answer, you can (sort of) cheat and use je. Conversely this means that if the proposed correct answer is presented with je, you can substitute it by jij, jou or jouw, but you must analyse the grammar to see which one you need. You don't have free choice. (English learners have almost the same problem with ambiguous contractions such as he's, which can be either he is or he has.)
In dictation exercises you never have free choice. You are supposed to hear whether je or one of the three longer forms (and which one) is used. However, the automatically generated Dutch voice may actually turn jij into je on its own. (It wasn't created specifically for Duolingo.) The only way to sort this out is to use the button for repeating it slowly, if that's available on your platform. If not, you will have to guess, unfortunately.
(Almost) finally, there are sentences where it's pretty much obvious that jij (or jou[w]) is stressed and therefore can't be replaced by je. This does not happen the other way round, at least not in practice in Duolingo. In a sentence with je, you can always replace it by the correct one out of jij or jou[w], even if it's not stressed. This just sounds slightly formal. (Theoretically there might be sentences where informality is implied so you can't actually do it. But I haven't encountered this in practice.)
Finally, the database of accepted translations is sometimes incomplete or even wrong. If something about your translation is slightly odd so that only few people try the same answer, then it can happen that just by accident the variant with je is in the database after someone has already proposed it and it was accepted, but the variant with jij or jou[w] is not because nobody has proposed it yet, or it was proposed and nobody got around to accepting it, or even it was rejected because it's a borderline case and inconsistent judgement calls were made. (Or maybe the first variant should never have been accepted because it's actually wrong.) Of course the same thing can happen the other way round as well. In these cases it's quite likely, based on Duolingo's simplistic string comparison algorithm, that if you propose the variant that is not in the database you are offered the one that is as the likely correction of your answer.
Based on the downvotes, I guess that this response was too cryptic for some people.
Ben(t) is first or second person singular, is is third person singular, and zijn is first, second or third person plural.
When comparing to Modern English, it is a problem that second person plural (e.g. "you are") has totally replaced the former second person singular (e.g. "thou art"). But in Shakespeare English we have very clear equivalences:
- Ik ben = I am
- Jij bent = Thou art [think of "art" as a simpler pronunciation of "amt"]
- Hij/zij is = He/she is
- Wij/jullie/zij zijn = We/you/they are.
- Wij zijn = we are: First person plural.
- Jullie zijn = you are: Second person plural.
Zij zijn = they are. Third person plural.
Jij bent = you are: Second person singular.
As you can see, English and Dutch always use the same verb form for the plural, regardless of person. In Dutch the second person singular is different, but in English it happens to be the same. In case you wonder why: In Early Modern English (e.g. King James Bible), the second person singular was still different:
- Jij bent = thou art.
But then people used the plural to address single persons politely, and finally used this polite form in all situations. This is why the plural verb form is used for the (second person) singular as well nowadays.
Jij is the subject of a sentence, jou the object, jouw indicates possession. In English you is used for both the subject and object, your for possession (for instance with he/him and she/her English uses different words for the subject and object as well).
- jij bent een jongen = you are a boy
- ik zie jou = I see you
- dat is jouw fiets = that is your bicycle
BTW jij, jou and jouw can all be replaced by je.
Jij and je are both correct in both sentences. It's extremely unlikely, if not impossible, that this is why you got one of the sentences wrong. However, if you did actually write "jij drink" or "je drink" instead of the correct "jij drinkt" or "je drinkt", then of course it was counted as wrong because you conjugated the verb incorrectly.
The -t at the end of a second person singular verb corresponds to the -st that English had in the same position when it still had a separate second person singular: "thou drinkest". But nowadays English speakers address even a single person in what was once only the plural.
You should treat the hints like a dictionary. Sometimes they seem to be tailored to the context, but usually they are not. In this case I find the hint duren even a bit puzzling. It's the infinitve and plural of the Dutch verb for last, as in "last for a long time". On occasion English may prefer to use be instead, but when using last in English would make no sense whatsoever, you can't use it in Dutch, either.
Both are correct in this context because it's not necessarily emphasised. If Duolingo told you to replace one by the other, then you probably had a typo or a rare formulation that happens to be in the database in one version but not in the other, and the algorithm picked the wrong 'correction'. Apparently, someone had this problem after mistyping en for een. (For details, see what is left from my discussion with bigbot1984 above.)
You have to choose the correct one for the person:
- I am. - Ik ben.
- You are. - Jij bent.
- He/she/it is. - Hij/zij/het is.
Note how this is more regular than English. Dutch uses -t for this purpose with ben like it does with practically all other verbs. (E.g. Ik zie - jij ziet.) English normally doesn't distinguish between first and second person singular verb forms at all, but has two special forms am and are for to be. (Both languages agree with each other and numerous other European languages in having a very special form of to be for 3rd person singular.)
An additional complication in Dutch is that when the word order is reversed, as in a question for example, the extra -t in bent (and all other 2nd person singular verb forms) disappears: "Jij bent" but "ben jij?".