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"Jij spreekt."

Translation:You speak.

4 years ago

31 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/coachjoel
coachjoel
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What's the difference between 'Je' and 'jij' ???

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Emmett705338

jij is NOT formal. je is the form of 'you' used when who the 'you' is, is not stressed. jij stresses that 'you' is the important part. like if you say 'no, you did it, not her' which would be different 'you' to , say, 'can you grab the newspaper?'.

'u' is the formal form of 'you' 'jullie' is the plural form

I know my dutch tree isn't that high, I mostly know this stuff from family.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/johaquila
johaquila
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You are using formal in a different sense than l.omari does.

  • When addressing someone you don't know, then in certain situations - but not just in situations in which English speakers would use the related your hono[u]r even today - you may choose to use the 'polite' / 'formal' form of address, i.e. use u rather than jij/je.
  • In certain formal situation - basically when an English speaker would tend to avoid contractions and always say or write it is rather than it's - a Dutch speaker will avoid the reduced form je and always say or write jij. E.g. I would expect that this is how children might be addressed in a contract. (Some old-fashioned people probably do this without exception, but let's ignore them.)

Outside the latter kind of formal situation, nowadays jij is almost universally abbreviated as je, except when it can't be because it is stressed. Je is always unstressed. Jij can be stressed or unstressed, though from what I wrote before it follows that it is stressed much more often than unstressed.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/l.omari

Je is informal and jij formal. Also je is sometimes used when the subject is more general (unstressed) than specific (stressed)...thats my understanding of it. I welcome further insight from a native if needed.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/d00t

I thought 'u' was formal, not 'jij'?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/johaquila
johaquila
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That's the problem with talking about language.

U is what you use instead of je (or jij) when you want to be formal in the sense of a (social) distance from the person you address. Many European languages use the plural in this situation, and some the third person. English also uses the plural for this, but has extended its use so far that the singular (thou) is no longer in use at all. Some Asian languages such as Japanese and Korean have extended the general idea significantly and use so-called honorifics. - English still has a construction that is etymologically related to Dutch u: your hono(u)r. But its use is restricted to certain very formal contexts; basically just courts of law.

Jij is what you use instead of je when you want to be formal in the sense of using language precisely and pronouncing every word very clearly. Using jij instead of je is the Dutch equivalent of using it is and I am instead of it's and I'm. Otherwise jij and je are fully equivalent - except of course in those situations when je actually stands for jouw rather than for jij. Just like when reading an English text to someone it's not really wrong to pronounce "it is" as "it's", when reading a Dutch text it's not really wrong to pronounce "jij" (or "jouw") as "je".

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/orthohawk
orthohawk
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Just as a matter of info, "thou" is indeed still used, but only in dialect or among certain religious groups (and the form is "thee" among the latter, though in the religious group case, the verb for is the "he/she/it" form: thee has)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BasCostBudde
BasCostBudde
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No, jij is never formal.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/johaquila
johaquila
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That's not entirely true because the word 'formal' is ambiguous in this context. There are two formality dimensions:

  1. When addressing a customer for the first time, you are likely to use formal u rather than informal jij/je to express distance from / respect for the other person.
  2. When thanking your wife or girlfriend in an academic thesis, I guess you are likely to use formal jij rather than informal je because the communication happens in a formal context.

I am not completely sure I have found a good context for explaining 2, but the real point is that such contexts exist - 'formal' contexts in which people either say jij rather than je most of the time, or at least 'correct' je to jij in writing.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BasCostBudde
BasCostBudde
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I'm listening to you, interestedly. I can't distinguish the two dimensions yet based on what you write.

I'll tell you my native experience. "jij" is the explicit second person subject, mostly used when first indicating, when accent on the person is wanted. "je" is the reduced form of "jij". Nothing more-nothing less.

When thanking in an thesis, it is likely you want to use the stressed form. But then again I can imagine quite well "Je bent een grote steun voor me geweest", and saying "jij bent een grote steun voor me geweest" somehow hints that someone else has not. It's up to you.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/johaquila
johaquila
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OK, maybe the move towards je has progressed even further than I thought. So far I always thought that the distinction was pretty much like the distinction between it is and it's and other long/contracted alternatives in English. The original, uncontracted forms are becoming less and less common, yet in certain highly formalised texts such as laws, they are basically still used exclusively.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/gypsybird
gypsybird
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Is "sp" (as in spreekt) pronounced as "sp" or as "shp", like in German? I thought "sp" was never pronounced as in German, but I could swear this is what I hear... Again, it might just be me getting old... ;)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Susande
Susande
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Native speaker here, it should be "sp" not "shp", the voice pronounces spreekt with a German accent which is "shp". So gypsybird I hear the same thing you hear, ignore this pronunciation. :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/johaquila
johaquila
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For me (native German speaker) it sounds like a neutral sound somewhere between s and sh. This makes perfect sense. The s pronunciation was the original one even in German. By some phonological process this is slowly moving towards sh in front of t and p, to some extent also in front of k. In Standard German this process has completed. In Dutch and in Low German it's still in progress.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/gypsybird
gypsybird
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It is true that, even in English, some people will tend to say things such as "shtraight" instead of "straight", or "shtreet" instead of "street".

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/buffalump21
buffalump21
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Yes, I've heard this on "Eastenders" (A well-known soap here in the UK) ... not seen it for ages but I particularly remember Daniella Westbrook using it.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MentalPinball
MentalPinball
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Interesting. So this variation occurs before voiceless plosives then (and according to what other users have said it also occurs in certain varieties of English).

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/InaliSlave

I hear this as well.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DaithiBC

It sounds more like a shp to me as well.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/cwaospi
cwaospi
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The reason is because the Dutch /s/ (at least in some accents) is an apical-alveolar consonant rather than a dental-alveolar. Let me get deeper into phonetics: the first sound is made with the tip of the tongue touching the alveolar region behind the teeth, and the second sound is made with the tip touching the inferior teeth and the blade of the tongue touching the alveoalr region. That /s/ sound is also used in Spain and some Colombian Spanish (like in Pablo Escobar's speech), and sounds like a /sh/ to us Mexicans Spanish-speakers (We use a /s/ like in English or French).

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Languages127

I keep on confusing "je" and "jij" for "I" because I'm also learning French.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sandpiper270

I did not think about this, but have been having trouble too. Confusing it with jeg in Norwegian. Need to find a mental reminder that it isn't "I".

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JohanndeBoer

Is "Je spreekt" also acceptable?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/iampatriciag

It's not incorrect in Dutch :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/l.omari

Yes

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SavvyLD

whats the differents speaks and speak I get it wrong like evry time

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MentalPinball
MentalPinball
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"speaks" is only used with the third person singular (he/she/it). "speak" is used in all other cases and is the bare infinitive form as well.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/RachelCheree

Why is it spreekt with you speak but when we say I speak or they speak we use spreken? I'm trying to associate spreken as speak and spreekt as speaks BUT it doesn't seem to always work...what's the "rule" to remember when to say which?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/El2theK
El2theK
Mod
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1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/jm8919

Is it correct to say: ''jij praat?''

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BasCostBudde
BasCostBudde
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It's slightly different. Praten means performing the action of using speech, it may include conversation. Much like talking. Spreken means presenting a subject or applying a language, it usually includes an audience. Much like speaking indeed. Spreken feels a little more formal to me.

1 year ago