On the other hand, "Do you go along?" doesn't sound awkward in isolation, I think because it implies asking about some regular event that the speaker isn't involved in. For example, "When your mother-in-law goes to the doctor, do you and your wife go along?"
"Come along!" means "Come with me/us!" and I have trouble imagining scenarios where a native English speaker like me might naturally say, "Do you come along?" ....
Here's one: You telephone to make a doctor's appointment for your mother-in-law, who doesn't speak English. The doctor's new receptionist wonders if you and your wife usually come along (to interpret).
Dutch and German don't use "to do" or "to be" as an auxiliary. While in English, you would say "are you coming with?" and it would have a different meaning than "do you come with?", in Dutch and German you would say what equates to "come you with?" In the same way, you would say "I study" rather than "I am studying," and "drinks he milk?" rather than "does he drink milk?" The only reason they use "do you come along" here is because it makes it less messy than having "to be" and a participle.
This is something that annoys me: how is do you come along grammatically incorrect? Let's swap to come along for another verb, like to go. I don't think you'll find any problem with do you go. Grammatically, it is a completely correct sentence, although, as you said, it might not sound normal in certain dialects of English. Do not mix up grammatical and idiomatical errors!, please; the latter is much more unstable, and completely changes in the timezone of about 20 years, so while do you come along? might be idiomatically correct now, that may not be the case soon, but it will be grammatically correct for a long time.
Sorry about that rant, I just don't like people mixing them up, and it happens all too often. I mean no offence upon you, and hope that you a: learn not to mix the two up, and b: have a nice day.