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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/demoksaputra

The Classifiers: Buah, Orang and Ekor

The Indonesian language has a fairly large number of classifiers to count objects based on their characteristics. Among the many classifiers for items, the most common one is buah, literally ‘fruit’.

If you count cars, for instance, then you can use the classifier:

  • Sebuah mobil 'a car, one car'.
  • Dua buah mobil 'two cars' etc.

The classifiers can come handy to singularize a word. The sentence "Ada mobil di depan rumah kita", can mean "There is a car in front of our house", or "There are cars in front of our house" because every noun in the Indonesian language can be singular or plural.

In order to singularize the word you can say "Ada sebuah mobil di depan rumah kita" - "There is a car in front of our house".

The classifier buah can be used with many objects. Even objects that should carry a different classifier such as batang (used for stick-like objects), biji (used for very small round objects), helai (used for flat soft items), or keping (used for flat rigid items) can often take the classifier buah.

Animals are counted by ekor - 'tail':

  • Seekor kucing - 'a cat', dua ekor anjing - 'two dogs',
  • And people by orang: seorang perempuan - 'a woman', dua orang perempuan - 'two women' etc.

Examples:

  • batang = sebatang lilin = a candle stick

  • buah = sebuah apel = an apple

  • butir = sebutir telur = an egg

  • cangkir = secangkir teh = a cup of tea

  • ekor = seekor kambing = a goat

  • gelas = segelas air = a glass of water

  • helai = sehelai rambut = one strand of hair

  • ikat = seikat bunga = a bunch of flowers

  • kejap = sekejap mata = in a blink of an eye

  • lembar = selembar kertas = one piece of paper

  • mangkuk = semangkuk sup = a bowl of soup

  • orang = seorang wanita = a woman

  • pasang = sepasang sepatu = a pair of shoes

  • piring = sepiring makanan = a plate of food

  • potong = sepotong kue = a slice of cake

  • sendok = sesendok makan = one table spoon

  • siung = sesiung bawang putih = a clove of garlic

  • suap = sesuap nasi = a mouthful of rice

  • tangkai = setangkai bunga = a flower

  • titik = setitik darah = a drop of blood

Source : http://www.bahasakita.com/about/grammar/the-classifiers-buah-orang-and-ekor/

July 24, 2014

57 Komentar


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Hai, semuanya! Kenalkan, saya orang Jepang. Saya belum pernah ke Indonesia. Tapi saya ingin belajar bahasa Indonesia. :) Terima kasih banyak! :D

Hi, everyone! Nice to meet you. I'm Japanese. I've never been to Indonesia. But I want to learn Indonesian. :) But there is no school of Indonesian in this neighbourhood. Therefore, I'm currently studying Indonesian on my own. Maybe, Indonesian is easier than English for Japanese people. But 'the Classifiers' of Indonesian are too difficult for me! So, this discussion was really helpful. Thank you so much! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/abrahamzetz

Hai Anjyu, senang sekali kamu mau belajar bahasa Indonesia. Sedikit tips, classifiers dalam bahasa sehari-hari terkadang tidak diucapkan, tidak seperti bahasa Mandarin yang mutlak harus mengandung 'classifier', jadi kalau bingung bisa bilang "dua mobil". Perlu diingat itu tidak formal, tapi semua orang pasti mengerti.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lintaarchie

It's really nice knowing a foreigner trying to learn Indonesian. Semoga berhasil, Anjyu!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gea123gea

there are many who want to learn Indonesian, and because the lessons are not there we do it in this way, i learned a lot in this way but indonesian for english speakers would be better.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Origin5world5_

Unfortunately, it is not available to everyone. Thank you Duolingo for offering us FREE language courses of great quality!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/carolustheo

teman aku sekolah di sekolah indonesia di jepang.. kalo tidak salah di daerah Osaka. Sepertinya sekolah untuk anak diplomat Konsulat Jenderal Indonesia di Jepang. Mungkin kamu bisa belajar di sana. (my friend studied in indonesian school in Japan. if i recall, it's in Osaka. A school for children of Indonesian diplomats, you may study bahasa Indonesia there)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih untuk memberitahu saya informasi rinci! Tapi, saya tinggal di Yokohama, Prefektur Kanagawa. Osaka sangat jauh dari Yokohama. Jadi saya tidak bisa pergi ke sekolah Osaka. =(

Rupanya ada beberapa sekolah Indonesia di Tokyo. Tapi sekolah adalah harga yang sangat tinggi. Saya harus mencari nafkah sendiri. Jadi saya tidak punya banyak uang ... =(

Sekarang, saya sedang belajar dari buku dengan CD Indonesia. Saya ingin pergi ke Indonesia suatu hari nanti! =D

  • Saya minta maaf jika saya membuat kesalahan dalam menulis itu! =P

---------------------------------------------

Thank you for telling me the detailed information! But, I live in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture. Osaka is very far from Yokohama. So I can't go to the school of Osaka. =(

Apparently there are several Indonesian school in Tokyo. But the schools are very high price. All that I can do is to support myself... So I don't have much money... =(

Now, I'm studying out of the book with a CD of Indonesian. =D I want to go to Indonesia someday!

  • I'm sorry if I make a mistake in this writing! =P

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/pyuu88

You didn't make any significant mistake, Anjyu. I'm sure every Indonesians can understand your writing.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jogerj

Saya pastikan bahwa bahasa Indonesia Anda cukup fasih, bahkan lebih fasih dari kebanyakan orang Indonesia karena sering kali orang Indonesia akan menggunakan bahasa campuran dengan bahasa daerah masing-masing.

I asure you that your Indonesian is quite fluent, even more fluent than most Indonesians as we often use mixed up languages made of Indonesian and local languages and dialects.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SoegandaGoeleo

Konnichiwa, Anjyu.. Kita memiliki persamaan, namun berbeda tujuan.. Kamu ingin ke Indonesia, Saya ingin ke Jepang, kamu belajar bahasa Indonesia, saya belajar bahasa Jepang, mari belajar bersama-sama, Indonnesia-Jepang adalah sahabat sejati, Indoneshia-Nihon wa kokoro no tomo,,

Hello, Anjyu, we're same, but different, You want go to Indonesia, I want go to Japan, You learn Indonesian, I learn Japanese ,, Let's study together ..


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IcangMerz

super sekali kamu tidak membuat kesalahan dalam membuat kalimat sebanyak itu... ckckckc... you speak like a native... keep on doing.!!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/masrosid

Menurutku kalimat pertama yang dipakai @Anjyu masih kurang tepat. Kalimat "Terima kasih untuk memberitahu saya informasi rinci" masih terdengar ganjil. Akan lebih baik kalau diganti menjadi "Terima kasih telah memberitahu saya informasi rinci" atau "Terima kasih untuk memberitahuku informasi rinci".


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NaylaAlzena

wah! kamu berbicara sangat fasih! semangat!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/fakhriyyafauzan

Semoga berhasil, Anjyu san! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CheesyBacons

Arigatou Anjyu for learning Bahasa Indonesia. You make me proud of my own language :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/yukikayo

Semoga berhasil >_< :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih banyak, yukikayo! Saya akan melakukan yang terbaik. :)

(...I'm sorry if I make a mistake in writing Indonesian...)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RizkySyaif

saya tidak menemukan satupun kesalahan anjyu :)

kenapa bahasa indonesia lebih mudah dari bahasa Inggris?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IcangMerz

you do not make a mistake.....semoga berhasil...!!!!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FerdyTaraw

bahasa indonesia kamu sudah cukup bagus kok. Good luck Anjyu!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Piaalexa22

Hai anjyu,semoga bisa ke indonesia.

Hi anjyu,i hope you can come at indonesia


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/shiryuu88

Halo, Anjyu. Selamat belajar bahasa Indonesia.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih banyak, Shiryuu88! Saya akan melakukan yang terbaik. :)

Thank you so much for your reply! I'll do my best. :) (...I'm sorry if I make a mistake in writing Indonesian...)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuSSdiey

semoga berhasil, selamat belajar :)


[pengguna yang dinonaktifkan]

    Halo Anjyu, Semangat Belajar bahasa indonesianya :) . Semoga cepat berhasil


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/theo99999

    Indonesian version (mind you, this is a course for Indonesian learning English)

    Bahasa Indonesia memiliki banyak kata satuan (classifiers), salah satu yang paling sering ditemui adalah "buah".

    Misalkan Anda sedang menghitung mobil, Anda bisa menggunakan kata satuan "sebuah" (sebuah mobil, dua buah mobil, dll.)

    Kata satuan ini memudahkan Anda untuk mementukan jumlah barang. Contohnya, "Ada mobil di depan rumah kita" bisa berarti 1 mobil, 2 mobil, atau lebih. (kata objek di bahasa Indonesia tidak mengenal singular ataupun plural)

    Untuk mementukan jumlah, Anda bisa memberi kata satuan, contohnya, "Ada sebuah mobil di depan rumah kita" (There is a car in front of our house)

    Kata "buah" dapat dipakai di berbagai macam benda, bahkan beberapa benda yang mempunyai kata satuan lain (misalkan batang, biji, helai, keping, dll.) seringkali dapat digantikan dengan kata "buah".

    Hewan mempunyai kata satuan ekor (lit. tail) - dua ekor anjing / two dogs, and people by orang (lit. human) - seorang perempuan /a woman, dll.

    Contoh

    batang = sebatang lilin = a candle stick

    buah = sebuah apel = an apple

    cangkir = secangkir teh = a cup of tea

    ekor = seekor kambing = a goat

    gelas = segelas air = a glass of water

    helai = sehelai rambut = one piece of hair

    ikat = seikat bunga = a bunch of flowers

    kejap = sekejap mata = in a blink of an eye

    lembar = selembar kertas = one piece of paper

    mangkuk = semangkuk sup = a bowl of soup

    orang = seorang wanita = a woman

    pasang = sepasang sepatu = a pair of shoes

    piring = sepiring makanan = a plate of food

    potong = sepotong kue = a slice of cake

    sendok = sesendok makan = one table spoon

    siung = sesiung bawang putih = a clove of garlic

    suap = sesuap nasi = a mouthful of rice

    tangkai = setangkai bunga = a flower

    titik = setitik darah = a drop of blood


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/abesast

    Hai, boleh koreksi sedikit? Sehelai rambut akan lebih baik jika diterjemahkan menjadi ' a [single] strand of hair'. Kata di dalam kurung siku boleh digunakan atau tidak, arbitrary :)


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/meenyo

    classifier dalam ilmu bahasa lebih dikenal dengan kata bantu bilangan :)


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gea123gea

    baik! terima kasih!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claybird121

    I'm a Texan trying to learn Bahasa, and things like this make it much easier. Terima kasih!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claybird121

    Also, it seems many english speakers have a hard time learning the prefixes and suffixes, like "ber" and "kah". A chart for those would help me improve my bahasa quickly.


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/deasyrimanda

    We called it "imbuhan" in Bahasa. There is a rule, but sometimes it's vary depends on the word you use.


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnkaDewo

    Just don't give up! Bahasa Indonesia can be confusing sometimes.


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/seelian

    A bit different with us. xD

    sejambak bunga

    secawan teh

    sekejap/sekelip mata

    sehelai kertas

    sepinggan/sepiring makanan


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/meenyo

    Kita masih memakai "secawan" atau "secangkir", sepinggan sudah termasuk kata kuno dibandingkan sepiring


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/carolustheo

    malaysian? there is an indonesian airport named Sepinggan Airport... i just laughed at the last example


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dredwerkz

    Yep! All that is in Malay!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DUODELETED129

    do you want to be friend me ?


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arvidan

    Keren diskusinya. Kadang hal-hal sepele seperti ini luput untuk diajarkan pada pemula. Sangat membantu!

    {Awesome discussion. Sometimes trivial stuffs like those are missing to be taught to beginner. It's very helpful!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

    Very useful !

    But just a remark: when you have "one", Duolingo wants "satu", and the inverse, "one" when it's "satu".

    Is sebuah = sebutir? Same use?


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NugrohoE

    Hmm... it's not same. but Indonesian has A or An in every different word like Demoksaputra's explanation.

    Sebuah Apel is An Apple. but, An Egg, you can not translate Sebuah Telur. it's wrong. You can translate, Sebutir Telur. This is unique cases.


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

    The use is missing for "sebutir" in this explanation, so I've searched a bit: Butir/Sebutir: "Used with small, round or elongated objects, grains, pellets" dua butir pasir, sebutir pil, sebutir telur.

    But also Sebutir pikiran: That's weird! I didn't understand how to use classifiers with abstract nouns.

    I've also found other identifiers that are new for me:

    • Biji (round and elongated things: Biji/Sebiji: mangga, dua biji mangga, ketimun)

    • Carik/Secarik: with paper;(seems like "Lembar/Selembar". They also say Helai/Sehelai can also be used with paper, not only textiles, because it's flat. Daun can also be used with paper.)

    • Batang (they say for cylindrical things)

    • Bentuk/Sebentuk (round things)

    • Cincin (a ring of...)

    • Gelang (bracelet)

    • Bidang/Sebidang (plate things, like: sebidang tanah)

    • Bilah/Sebilah (sharp things): sebilah pisau.

    • Kaki/Sekaki (only for umbrellas): Sekaki payung.

    • Kuntum, they say you can use it like Ikat/Sehikat, with flowers.

    • Patah/Sepatah, used to count words.

    They say, Tangkai/Setangkai, not only for flowers, but can be used with pens, as it's elongated, used with "slender objects, such as stems and tool handles".

    Sepotong: for plate things, it seems, not only cakes, but for instance dresses.

    • Pucuk/Sepucuk: with guns and letters. (Why guns and letters?)

    • Utas/Seutas: piece of for textiles.

    • Belah/Sebelah: 1/2 pair. Belah sepatu.

    Source: "Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar" by James Neil Sheddon.


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BambangPra11

    We never use "sebutir pikiran", the correct one is "sebuah pemikiran".

    Also "sebiji mangga" is not correct, "sebuah mangga" is the correct one. All fruits use "buah" except coconut which uses "butir".

    "sekaki payung" is never used. Use "sebuah payung".


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rick392366

    Thank you.
    I've linked to this topic from the other course (Learning Indonesian from English).


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/.Isti

    It was really helpful:)


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/yukikayo

    It's very helpfull. Arigatou, Minna. (Just try to speaking Japanese). >_<


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/luthfahramadhini

    terima kasih kepada teman teman yang sudah ingin belajar bahasa indonesia , saya sangat bangga sebagai orang indonesia yang mendengar seluruh dunia mempelajari bahasa indonesia , terima kasih banyak , (thanks to friends who have wanted to learn Indonesian , I am very proud as an Indonesian who heard all over the world to learn Indonesian , thank you very much ,)


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EuricoTampati

    thank you thats is helpful for me


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EmilyAiken3

    Thank you! This is helpful. I'm glad to know that I can probably used "buah" for most things if I forget some of the other classifiers like "batang" or "helai"


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChvHndrtnt

    I want to give some information about Indonesian "classifier" or we called it in Indonesian with "kata bantu bilangan".

    Disclaimer: Since I'm not Indonesian literature scholar, I don't have enough knowledge about Indonesian Linguistic so maybe I need some correction

    based on my experience in written academic Indonesian, when I wrote my undergraduate thesis, my academic writing adviser told me that I don't need to add some "classifier" in any academic writing, because it is never used and can be misleading, so you just add numeral and object only.

    for example:

    instead you use : Saya membeli dua butir telur

    Ilmuwan membaca dua buah prasasti

    you just need to use: Saya membeli dua telur

    ilmuwan membaca dua prasasti

    except if you want to use it for literary purpose, like make some poem or write some story


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Branzooo27

    semangat semuanya belajar bahasa indonesia!!!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KeesvanRee

    Balik ke kata satuan itu. Aku tidak pikir semua contoh yang tersebut sebetulnya adalah kata satuan. Banyak daripada mereka juga ada di Inggres dan bahasa lain, seperti "cangkir", "gelas", "pasang", "potong" dan "titik": yang ini hanya tunjuk bekas atau banyaknya, yang setiap bahasa perlu.

    (Back to the subject of classifiers. I don't think that every mentioned example is a true classifier. Many of them are also present in English and other languages, like "cup" (cangkir), "glass" (gelas), "pair" (pasang), "slice" (potong) and "drop" (titik): those are just pointing out a container or amount, which everey langage needs.)


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Feri933168

    also learn indonesian laugh is wkwkwkwk

    Pelajari Bahasa Inggris 5 menit saja sehari. Gratis.