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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/demoksaputra

The Classifiers: Buah, Orang and Ekor

The Indonesian language has a fairly large number of classifiers to count objects based on their characteristics. Among the many classifiers for items, the most common one is buah, literally ‘fruit’.

If you count cars, for instance, then you can use the classifier:

  • Sebuah mobil 'a car, one car'.
  • Dua buah mobil 'two cars' etc.

The classifiers can come handy to singularize a word. The sentence "Ada mobil di depan rumah kita", can mean "There is a car in front of our house", or "There are cars in front of our house" because every noun in the Indonesian language can be singular or plural.

In order to singularize the word you can say "Ada sebuah mobil di depan rumah kita" - "There is a car in front of our house".

The classifier buah can be used with many objects. Even objects that should carry a different classifier such as batang (used for stick-like objects), biji (used for very small round objects), helai (used for flat soft items), or keping (used for flat rigid items) can often take the classifier buah.

Animals are counted by ekor - 'tail':

  • Seekor kucing - 'a cat', dua ekor anjing - 'two dogs',
  • And people by orang: seorang perempuan - 'a woman', dua orang perempuan - 'two women' etc.

Examples:

  • batang = sebatang lilin = a candle stick

  • buah = sebuah apel = an apple

  • butir = sebutir telur = an egg

  • cangkir = secangkir teh = a cup of tea

  • ekor = seekor kambing = a goat

  • gelas = segelas air = a glass of water

  • helai = sehelai rambut = one strand of hair

  • ikat = seikat bunga = a bunch of flowers

  • kejap = sekejap mata = in a blink of an eye

  • lembar = selembar kertas = one piece of paper

  • mangkuk = semangkuk sup = a bowl of soup

  • orang = seorang wanita = a woman

  • pasang = sepasang sepatu = a pair of shoes

  • piring = sepiring makanan = a plate of food

  • potong = sepotong kue = a slice of cake

  • sendok = sesendok makan = one table spoon

  • siung = sesiung bawang putih = a clove of garlic

  • suap = sesuap nasi = a mouthful of rice

  • tangkai = setangkai bunga = a flower

  • titik = setitik darah = a drop of blood

Source : http://www.bahasakita.com/about/grammar/the-classifiers-buah-orang-and-ekor/

July 24, 2014

56 Komentar


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/theo99999

Indonesian version (mind you, this is a course for Indonesian learning English)

Bahasa Indonesia memiliki banyak kata satuan (classifiers), salah satu yang paling sering ditemui adalah "buah".

Misalkan Anda sedang menghitung mobil, Anda bisa menggunakan kata satuan "sebuah" (sebuah mobil, dua buah mobil, dll.)

Kata satuan ini memudahkan Anda untuk mementukan jumlah barang. Contohnya, "Ada mobil di depan rumah kita" bisa berarti 1 mobil, 2 mobil, atau lebih. (kata objek di bahasa Indonesia tidak mengenal singular ataupun plural)

Untuk mementukan jumlah, Anda bisa memberi kata satuan, contohnya, "Ada sebuah mobil di depan rumah kita" (There is a car in front of our house)

Kata "buah" dapat dipakai di berbagai macam benda, bahkan beberapa benda yang mempunyai kata satuan lain (misalkan batang, biji, helai, keping, dll.) seringkali dapat digantikan dengan kata "buah".

Hewan mempunyai kata satuan ekor (lit. tail) - dua ekor anjing / two dogs, and people by orang (lit. human) - seorang perempuan /a woman, dll.

Contoh

batang = sebatang lilin = a candle stick

buah = sebuah apel = an apple

cangkir = secangkir teh = a cup of tea

ekor = seekor kambing = a goat

gelas = segelas air = a glass of water

helai = sehelai rambut = one piece of hair

ikat = seikat bunga = a bunch of flowers

kejap = sekejap mata = in a blink of an eye

lembar = selembar kertas = one piece of paper

mangkuk = semangkuk sup = a bowl of soup

orang = seorang wanita = a woman

pasang = sepasang sepatu = a pair of shoes

piring = sepiring makanan = a plate of food

potong = sepotong kue = a slice of cake

sendok = sesendok makan = one table spoon

siung = sesiung bawang putih = a clove of garlic

suap = sesuap nasi = a mouthful of rice

tangkai = setangkai bunga = a flower

titik = setitik darah = a drop of blood

July 24, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/abesast

Hai, boleh koreksi sedikit? Sehelai rambut akan lebih baik jika diterjemahkan menjadi ' a [single] strand of hair'. Kata di dalam kurung siku boleh digunakan atau tidak, arbitrary :)

September 22, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/meenyo

classifier dalam ilmu bahasa lebih dikenal dengan kata bantu bilangan :)

March 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gea123gea

baik! terima kasih!

July 20, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Hai, semuanya! Kenalkan, saya orang Jepang. Saya belum pernah ke Indonesia. Tapi saya ingin belajar bahasa Indonesia. :) Terima kasih banyak! :D

Hi, everyone! Nice to meet you. I'm Japanese. I've never been to Indonesia. But I want to learn Indonesian. :) But there is no school of Indonesian in this neighbourhood. Therefore, I'm currently studying Indonesian on my own. Maybe, Indonesian is easier than English for Japanese people. But 'the Classifiers' of Indonesian are too difficult for me! So, this discussion was really helpful. Thank you so much! :D

December 16, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/abrahamzetz

Hai Anjyu, senang sekali kamu mau belajar bahasa Indonesia. Sedikit tips, classifiers dalam bahasa sehari-hari terkadang tidak diucapkan, tidak seperti bahasa Mandarin yang mutlak harus mengandung 'classifier', jadi kalau bingung bisa bilang "dua mobil". Perlu diingat itu tidak formal, tapi semua orang pasti mengerti.

April 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lintaarchie

It's really nice knowing a foreigner trying to learn Indonesian. Semoga berhasil, Anjyu!

January 9, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gea123gea

there are many who want to learn Indonesian, and because the lessons are not there we do it in this way, i learned a lot in this way but indonesian for english speakers would be better.

July 20, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GlCqPY

Unfortunately, it is not available to everyone. Thank you Duolingo for offering us FREE language courses of great quality!

August 19, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/carolustheo

teman aku sekolah di sekolah indonesia di jepang.. kalo tidak salah di daerah Osaka. Sepertinya sekolah untuk anak diplomat Konsulat Jenderal Indonesia di Jepang. Mungkin kamu bisa belajar di sana. (my friend studied in indonesian school in Japan. if i recall, it's in Osaka. A school for children of Indonesian diplomats, you may study bahasa Indonesia there)

January 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih untuk memberitahu saya informasi rinci! Tapi, saya tinggal di Yokohama, Prefektur Kanagawa. Osaka sangat jauh dari Yokohama. Jadi saya tidak bisa pergi ke sekolah Osaka. =(

Rupanya ada beberapa sekolah Indonesia di Tokyo. Tapi sekolah adalah harga yang sangat tinggi. Saya harus mencari nafkah sendiri. Jadi saya tidak punya banyak uang ... =(

Sekarang, saya sedang belajar dari buku dengan CD Indonesia. Saya ingin pergi ke Indonesia suatu hari nanti! =D

  • Saya minta maaf jika saya membuat kesalahan dalam menulis itu! =P

---------------------------------------------

Thank you for telling me the detailed information! But, I live in Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture. Osaka is very far from Yokohama. So I can't go to the school of Osaka. =(

Apparently there are several Indonesian school in Tokyo. But the schools are very high price. All that I can do is to support myself... So I don't have much money... =(

Now, I'm studying out of the book with a CD of Indonesian. =D I want to go to Indonesia someday!

  • I'm sorry if I make a mistake in this writing! =P
January 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/pyuu88

You didn't make any significant mistake, Anjyu. I'm sure every Indonesians can understand your writing.

January 6, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jogerj

Saya pastikan bahwa bahasa Indonesia Anda cukup fasih, bahkan lebih fasih dari kebanyakan orang Indonesia karena sering kali orang Indonesia akan menggunakan bahasa campuran dengan bahasa daerah masing-masing.

I asure you that your Indonesian is quite fluent, even more fluent than most Indonesians as we often use mixed up languages made of Indonesian and local languages and dialects.

January 11, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SoegandaGoeleo

Konnichiwa, Anjyu.. Kita memiliki persamaan, namun berbeda tujuan.. Kamu ingin ke Indonesia, Saya ingin ke Jepang, kamu belajar bahasa Indonesia, saya belajar bahasa Jepang, mari belajar bersama-sama, Indonnesia-Jepang adalah sahabat sejati, Indoneshia-Nihon wa kokoro no tomo,,

Hello, Anjyu, we're same, but different, You want go to Indonesia, I want go to Japan, You learn Indonesian, I learn Japanese ,, Let's study together ..

January 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/carolustheo

semangaaat

January 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IcangMerz

super sekali kamu tidak membuat kesalahan dalam membuat kalimat sebanyak itu... ckckckc... you speak like a native... keep on doing.!!!

June 1, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/masrosid

Menurutku kalimat pertama yang dipakai @Anjyu masih kurang tepat. Kalimat "Terima kasih untuk memberitahu saya informasi rinci" masih terdengar ganjil. Akan lebih baik kalau diganti menjadi "Terima kasih telah memberitahu saya informasi rinci" atau "Terima kasih untuk memberitahuku informasi rinci".

August 10, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/fakhriyyafauzan

Semoga berhasil, Anjyu san! :D

February 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/CheesyBacons

Arigatou Anjyu for learning Bahasa Indonesia. You make me proud of my own language :D

July 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/yukikayo

Semoga berhasil >_< :D

December 20, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih banyak, yukikayo! Saya akan melakukan yang terbaik. :)

(...I'm sorry if I make a mistake in writing Indonesian...)

December 20, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RizkySyaif

saya tidak menemukan satupun kesalahan anjyu :)

kenapa bahasa indonesia lebih mudah dari bahasa Inggris?

February 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IcangMerz

you do not make a mistake.....semoga berhasil...!!!!

June 1, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FerdyTaraw

bahasa indonesia kamu sudah cukup bagus kok. Good luck Anjyu!

July 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Piaalexa22

Hai anjyu,semoga bisa ke indonesia.

Hi anjyu,i hope you can come at indonesia

July 29, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/shiryuu88

Halo, Anjyu. Selamat belajar bahasa Indonesia.

December 20, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Anjyu

Terima kasih banyak, Shiryuu88! Saya akan melakukan yang terbaik. :)

Thank you so much for your reply! I'll do my best. :) (...I'm sorry if I make a mistake in writing Indonesian...)

December 20, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RuSSdiey

semoga berhasil, selamat belajar :)

February 9, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RetadhaRumi

Halo Anjyu, Semangat Belajar bahasa indonesianya :) . Semoga cepat berhasil

June 22, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/cahyaann

Hai Anjyu

November 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DUODELETED129

add me

August 30, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Devakeren

bagus kali ya

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Alfajri122999

hallo.., saya fajrin asal sumatera selatan.,:) belajar bahasa indonesia itu tidak sulit kog.., pesan saya: " if you want to learn something, you must start from the most simple.."

December 28, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claybird121

I'm a Texan trying to learn Bahasa, and things like this make it much easier. Terima kasih!

February 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/claybird121

Also, it seems many english speakers have a hard time learning the prefixes and suffixes, like "ber" and "kah". A chart for those would help me improve my bahasa quickly.

February 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/deasyrimanda

We called it "imbuhan" in Bahasa. There is a rule, but sometimes it's vary depends on the word you use.

April 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AnkaDewo

Just don't give up! Bahasa Indonesia can be confusing sometimes.

January 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arvidan

Keren diskusinya. Kadang hal-hal sepele seperti ini luput untuk diajarkan pada pemula. Sangat membantu!

{Awesome discussion. Sometimes trivial stuffs like those are missing to be taught to beginner. It's very helpful!

March 3, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/seelian

A bit different with us. xD

sejambak bunga

secawan teh

sekejap/sekelip mata

sehelai kertas

sepinggan/sepiring makanan

July 25, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/meenyo

Kita masih memakai "secawan" atau "secangkir", sepinggan sudah termasuk kata kuno dibandingkan sepiring

March 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DUODELETED129

do you want to be friend me ?

August 30, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/carolustheo

malaysian? there is an indonesian airport named Sepinggan Airport... i just laughed at the last example

January 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dredwerkz

Yep! All that is in Malay!

January 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/.Isti

It was really helpful:)

August 1, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/yukikayo

It's very helpfull. Arigatou, Minna. (Just try to speaking Japanese). >_<

December 9, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/luthfahramadhini

terima kasih kepada teman teman yang sudah ingin belajar bahasa indonesia , saya sangat bangga sebagai orang indonesia yang mendengar seluruh dunia mempelajari bahasa indonesia , terima kasih banyak , (thanks to friends who have wanted to learn Indonesian , I am very proud as an Indonesian who heard all over the world to learn Indonesian , thank you very much ,)

January 27, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EuricoTampati

thank you thats is helpful for me

January 27, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rick392366

Thank you.
I've linked to this topic from the other course (Learning Indonesian from English).

June 7, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Devakeren

bagus

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/IQBALT1

Hai semuanya, apakah ada yang bisa membantu saya menjelaskan bagaimana cara kerja penggunakan Verb 1, 2, dan 3. Kalau bisa berikan contohnya juga ya. Thank you.

September 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Diidin

cukup simpel sebenernya, singkatnya : verb 1 = simple present / waktu sekarang = start/starts, put/puts verb 2 = past tense / waktu lampau = started, put verb 3 = past participle/passive voice / pasif = stared, put

lebih jelasnya, check this out: http://belajarbahasainggrisonline-gratis.blogspot.co.id/2014/08/kata-kerja-dalam-bahasa-inggris.html

http://informasitips.com/kata-kerja-dalam-bahasa-inggris

September 30, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

Very useful !

But just a remark: when you have "one", Duolingo wants "satu", and the inverse, "one" when it's "satu".

Is sebuah = sebutir? Same use?

April 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/NugrohoE

Hmm... it's not same. but Indonesian has A or An in every different word like Demoksaputra's explanation.

Sebuah Apel is An Apple. but, An Egg, you can not translate Sebuah Telur. it's wrong. You can translate, Sebutir Telur. This is unique cases.

April 16, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

The use is missing for "sebutir" in this explanation, so I've searched a bit: Butir/Sebutir: "Used with small, round or elongated objects, grains, pellets" dua butir pasir, sebutir pil, sebutir telur.

But also Sebutir pikiran: That's weird! I didn't understand how to use classifiers with abstract nouns.

I've also found other identifiers that are new for me:

  • Biji (round and elongated things: Biji/Sebiji: mangga, dua biji mangga, ketimun)

  • Carik/Secarik: with paper;(seems like "Lembar/Selembar". They also say Helai/Sehelai can also be used with paper, not only textiles, because it's flat. Daun can also be used with paper.)

  • Batang (they say for cylindrical things)

  • Bentuk/Sebentuk (round things)

  • Cincin (a ring of...)

  • Gelang (bracelet)

  • Bidang/Sebidang (plate things, like: sebidang tanah)

  • Bilah/Sebilah (sharp things): sebilah pisau.

  • Kaki/Sekaki (only for umbrellas): Sekaki payung.

  • Kuntum, they say you can use it like Ikat/Sehikat, with flowers.

  • Patah/Sepatah, used to count words.

They say, Tangkai/Setangkai, not only for flowers, but can be used with pens, as it's elongated, used with "slender objects, such as stems and tool handles".

Sepotong: for plate things, it seems, not only cakes, but for instance dresses.

  • Pucuk/Sepucuk: with guns and letters. (Why guns and letters?)

  • Utas/Seutas: piece of for textiles.

  • Belah/Sebelah: 1/2 pair. Belah sepatu.

Source: "Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar" by James Neil Sheddon.

April 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BambangPra11

We never use "sebutir pikiran", the correct one is "sebuah pemikiran".

Also "sebiji mangga" is not correct, "sebuah mangga" is the correct one. All fruits use "buah" except coconut which uses "butir".

"sekaki payung" is never used. Use "sebuah payung".

December 12, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ChvHndrtnt

I want to give some information about Indonesian "classifier" or we called it in Indonesian with "kata bantu bilangan".

Disclaimer: Since I'm not Indonesian literature scholar, I don't have enough knowledge about Indonesian Linguistic so maybe I need some correction

based on my experience in written academic Indonesian, when I wrote my undergraduate thesis, my academic writing adviser told me that I don't need to add some "classifier" in any academic writing, because it is never used and can be misleading, so you just add numeral and object only.

for example:

instead you use : Saya membeli dua butir telur

Ilmuwan membaca dua buah prasasti

you just need to use: Saya membeli dua telur

ilmuwan membaca dua prasasti

except if you want to use it for literary purpose, like make some poem or write some story

July 2, 2018
Pelajari Bahasa Inggris dalam 5 menit saja sehari. Gratis.