"It is still misty."
Translation:Tha i ceòthach fhathast.
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Grammatically, because ceòthach misty already fulfills the role of predicate.
And other way to think of it is: you are just saying that it (the weather, the day) is misty, not stating that it exists and is placed ‘somewhere’. It’s like eg. the cat is small which would be tha an cat beag, and you wouldn’t use ann here either.
It’s different than eg. tha an t-uisge ann for it is raining, because the Gaelic sentence literally states: the water is there/here, the water exists and is present around with the water being a term used for rain (so a bit less literally the rain is present around). But in this sentence the word for rain, an t-uisge, is a noun and a subject to the sentence.
In tha i ceòthach the subject is i it, she and ceòthach is an adjective telling you what it is like.
Not according to Wiktionary, and I can't see why it would be lenited in any case -- it's an adverb modifying the verb "tha". See: https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/fhathast
The Learn Gaelic dictionary has both fhathast and fathast, with the same definitions. When is the one used in preference to the other?