"C'est l'année où tu t'es cassé la jambe."
Translation:This is the year when you broke your leg.
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"Où" is "where" and only "where" as interrogative word: Où vas-tu ? = Where are you going?
In this sentence, it is a relative pronoun (like "qui, que, quoi, dont"). It starts a relative clause and its antecedent (the thing it replaces/refers to) is "année".
In this case, it means "when" but it could also mean "where":
- C'est l'endroit où tu t'es cassé la jambe = It's the place where you broke your leg.
The difference in vowel sound between "te" and "t'es" is the same as between "the" and "they".
Even if you don't hear it well, remember that "tu te cassais" means "you used to break" or "you were breaking", so none can work for this sentence, because the leg was broken once and at once.