https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh

Some Common mistakes in French (added c'est/il est)

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Here are some helpful guidelines to those who are studying French:

Common Mistakes

The second step when learning a language is to build up a new vocabulary, but keep in mind to say those words like a French speaker would. Tell-tale mistakes are:

Saying the letter: H. Words like "hôtel" ( it is just "otel" ).

Saying consonants at the end of a word. We don't pronounce most D, T and S when they are the last letter of a word.

For example, I hear the word "intéressant" pronounced "in-tay-ray-ssant". It should be "in-tay-ress-ssan". No T!

Another common mistake is to read "riz" (rice) as [reez] when it should simply be [ree]. Also, if you pronounce the T at the end of a noun or an adjective, it will sound like you are saying the feminine version of that word. For example, if you say [klee-ant], I will understand "cliente" (female customer). The masculine version is [klee-an].

Warning: Don't overdo the sound "ou." It should sound like the English "oo." If you can't hear a difference between "u" and "ou", you're doing it wrong. One common mistake is to pronounce "beaucoup" like this: [bo ku]. It makes it sounds like you said "beau cul" (meaning "nice ass"). So, be careful! Say [bo koo] to rhyme with a cooing pigeon [coo!] The trick to make the English "oo" sound French is to NOT elongate it.

Making all E (é and è included) sound like AY. The correct rules are as follow:

1) A plain E at the end of the word is to be skipped (replace it by a hyphen in your head)

2) É at the end of a word is to be pronounced. For example, "porte" is said [port-] and "porté" is [por-tay].

3) If a three-syllable word has a plain E in the middle, replace it with a hyphen in your head. Squash the E and read the word as if it were two syllables. For example, "acheter" would become "ach-ter" and would be pronounced [ash-tay].

Saying a long N when it's the last letter of a word or saying a short one when it's followed by an E. Getting it wrong in both cases is actually quite common, but it still drives me up the wall. The letter N should be super-short if at the end of a word (a millisecond), but it needs to be dragged about four times more than you think is decent if it's followed by an "E."

Three words that are murdered all the time are: "semaine" (it's not pronounced "say-main" but "suh-mennnnnnnn"), "personne" (say [pair-sonnnnnnnn]), "téléphone" (it should be [tay-lay-fonnnn]) and "bonne" [bonnnnnnnnnn].

Here is a list of some other words that should come with little warning bells:

"Pour". Saying "pour" (for) to indicate duration of time is a typical mistake made by native English speakers. In French, we say "pendant" or "durant" when a situation has a starting point and a finishing point. For example, "J'ai appris le français pendant 3 ans" (I started learning French at some point in the past and I stopped three years later).

"Pendant" or "durant". Saying "pendant" or "durant" (for) when meaning "since" is another common mistake. "Depuis" is used when a situation is still going on. You should say "J'apprends le français depuis 3 ans" (I've been learning French for 3 years).

"Toujours" (always), "jamais" (never), "souvent" (often) should not be wedged between the subject and the verb in French. Put them after the verb. Ex: "J'étudie souvent le soir" (I often study during the evenings).

With words like "beaucoup"(many/a lot), "un peu" (a little), "assez" (enough of something) and "pas" (no/any) you should always use "de" (or d') and no articles. Do not use "des," even if it's plural. And please, please pronounce "de" as [duh], not [day]. Ex : "J'ai lu beaucoup de livres" (I've read many books).

With "c'est", always use a masculine adjective. Too often I hear "C'est belle!" It should be "C'est beau". For general advice on gender, please see my article: Gender Obsession in French: Chivalry or Burden?

Other problematic words are known as "false friends". For more on that subject, False Friends Info

Learning the Rhythm

The third step to true fluency is learning how to pace words and the space (or lack) between words. Should you stress the first, middle or last syllable? Personally, I find that the last syllable is the shortest in French, but all other syllables have roughly the same length. If we compare the pronunciation of the word "television" for example: I've been told to say it (in English) a bit like "TELLL-a-vee-gee-oNNN." From my point of view, English speakers sing their endings. It drags and drags. French speakers don't like that. We are more "economical" with our endings (I mean plain old lazy). "Télévision" in French, it would be "tay-lay-vee-zeeon." No capitals, because there is no emphasis anywhere. The only special thing is the tiny ‘n’ at the end.

Liaisons As for how we string words together, there is a thing called "liaison." It's a sort of bridge between the end of one word and the beginning of the next word. But French speakers don't do it all the time. Here are the rules laid out for you:

  • Liaisons are made when a word finishes with a consonant and the next word starts with a vowel.
  • Liaisons must be made between article and nouns. For example: "un," "les" and "des."
  • Liaisons must also be made between a subject and a verb. For example: "nous", "vous", "ils" and "elle."
  • Liaisons must be made between possessive adjectives and nouns. For example: "mon," "ton," "son" and "leurs."
  • Liaison with "comment" (how) and "sous" (under) are strongly advised.
  • Other liaisons are optional. They vary according to taste and geography.
  • Liaison with "et" (and) are forbidden.

Now, let's see how it works. It's quite simple really.

  • Double the last consonant and carry it across to the next word. This way, you can leave a gap between two words, but still link them. For example: un example = un Nexampl-

  • If the last consonant is an S, don't pronounce it. Carry the letter Z across instead. For example: nous avons = noo Zavon-

Common mistakes:

Leaving no gaps at all, so a sentence like "Nous avons des oiseaux" sounds like [noozavondayzwazo].

Saying a subject (like "ils") and dragging the last consonant (so it becomes [eelzzz]) while thinking of the verb that should come next.

My last piece of advice is to pay attention to how natives speak. Take notes. You will discover some cute short cuts and weird links that are trendy in your area (or in the place you intend to visit). This will help you to blend in hugely.

That’s it for now! I've covered all the ground I was hoping to. I hope you liked it and found it useful. Keep practicing and good luck with it all!

Article Source


Added from a question below; these are basic infos but there are more complicated usage for each.

Here are some that must know about prepositional IN from English

EN - is more for countries / places

En France (female countries that does not need la)

En a certain Language

Je le sais en Anglais , i know it in English

EN AS ADVERB Could also mean it/ to recall something

Le journal? J'en ai acheté un, The journal? I have bought one

literally I have bought the journal one

AU - at the / aux - at the (plural place)

au supermarché, at the supermarket

DANS - into/ put in / inside something

dans ton sac, in your bag

CHEZ - at someone's house

nous allons chez moi; we are going into my house.

*Links to see for wider scope on En and Dans


C'est vs Il est

I have to add this because i still fall with the trap between these two

C'est and il est are the root forms, used for impersonal expressions and general comments: It's interesting, It's nice, It's fortunate, It's too bad, etc.

When talking about specific people, things, or ideas, c'est and il est may change.

  • C'est becomes ce sont when followed by a plural noun. In spoken French, though, c'est is often used anyway.

  • Il est becomes elle est, ils sont, or elles sont, as appropriate depending on the gender and number of the noun that it is replacing or modifying. Ce sont des Français ? Non, des Italiens. Are they French? No, Italian. Voici Alice - elle est professeur. This is Alice - she's a teacher. Despite their similar meanings, the expressions c'est and il est are not interchangeable - there are rules for using each one. The following table summarizes the different things that can be used after each of them.


IL EST | C'EST

Adjective describing a person V|S Adjective describing a situation

  • Il est fort, cet homme. | J'entends sa voix, c'est bizarre.
  • (That man is strong.) | (I hear his voice, it's weird.)
  • Elle est intelligente. | C'est normal !
  • (She is smart.) | (That's normal!)

Unmodified adverb V|S Modified adverb

  • Il est tard. | C'est trop tard.
  • (It's late.) | (It's too late.)
  • Elles sont ici. | C'est très loin d'ici.
  • (They are here) | (It's very far from here.)

Unmodified noun | Modified noun

  • Il est avocat. | C'est un avocat.
  • (He's a lawyer.) | (He's a lawyer.)
  • Elle est actrice. | C'est une bonne actrice.
  • (She's an actress.) | (She's a good actress.)

Prepositional phrase (people) V|S Proper name

  • Il est à la banque. | C'est John. (That's John.)
  • (He's at the bank.)
  • Elle est en France. | Stressed pronoun
  • (She's in France.) | C'est moi. (That's me.)

(from about.com)


Bon Apprentissage! :D

4 years ago

66 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/jbdyoni
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This is fantastic! I must make sure to keep this near by. Its funny reading this now makes me realise the many mistakes I have done already... But hey, thats the best way to learn right?

Anyway thank you so much for this, much appreciated! :D

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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De Rien! Bonne chance dans votre apprentissage! (Good Luck with your learning!) ü

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/michaelneser

Merci bo-coo!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/italical

Exactly what I was going to write! :P Great article.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Khajiit7952

I wish I had seen this starting out, as I've had to figure out/about.com all of this :D. I gave you a lingot anyway, simply for the effort you put into this. I may eventually do a reverse course and make a list just like yours for french speakers :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Piyaali

Thank you so much. This is fantastic stuff. You can find some of it online but the way you have written it is very interactive and fun!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TheLazyOtter

Thanks for this. I'll probably have to keep coming back to this, seems like a lot of mistakes I currently or will make.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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no problem! some of these mistakes still haunts me at times haha..

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DutchDuoL
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That's awesome, thanks for this!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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no problème! :) glad it helps you!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/heysweetie

Great ! I'll keep them in mind when I learn French. One lingot for your great job!!!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dfwgator
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Merci beaucoup.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Erkte
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Très intéressant. Mais les deux en ne sont pas le même mot: en effet, le première est une preposition et le deuxième une locution adverbiale.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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je sais. j'ai oublié indiquer. je l'ai ajouté. merci pour dire!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
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Nice one! You made a common English mistake though: "a lot" is two words, not one :D

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Uzma_Naz

Merci beaucoup monsieur Adrian!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/darflew
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This is great! Merci!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/thivya098

Wow, I didn't realize my mistakes with pronunciation until now!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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when i speak to French people even they say my accent is good there are still a lot of corrections that they are telling me about because french pronounciations are just crazy sometimes! haha

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MonaRichte

Super helpful :) Thanks!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/aislinnm

Really helpful! Thank you!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/snnybbeck

Thank you! or Merci!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Yeva1
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Thank you! Thank you! Thank you!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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De rien, y'a pas de quoi, Avec plaisir, pas de problème! haha

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/makiminami
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Merci beaucoup pour l'information!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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De rien!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Derpywolfe

Thank you for writing this, it make learning French easier. Merci et bonne nuit.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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No problem! just the IN part but the rest got it from the internet i sourced.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/joseangelxi
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Merci for this post! Specially the part regarding liaisons!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/emnsstar

Thank you so much!! Your post is super helpful! I have learn many mistake that I have made without realizing. I will try to keep them in mind so that I won't make the same mistakes again :D

Also, I am wondering if you could help me to solve this confusion that I have always had: any way to distinguish when to use "en", "au", or "dans" for "in"?

Thank you :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

It does get a bit complicated - especially because we use certain prepositions in English and they are not always the same ones the French use :)

The following links might help with en and dans

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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cool thanks for the links i still get in trouble with them sometimes! i added the links up there.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

Once you've been speaking French long enough, they come naturally - that's what makes them so hard to explain. It has been said that once you master prepositons (in any language), you have mastered the language. Prepositions, and the way they used (or not used) are so different in every language. Bonne continuation :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

Ps - Thanks for the links :) I see what you mean :) And so do I BTW :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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aha okay french and german kinda distort my thought on english prepositions also xD

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/emnsstar

Thank you for the added the explanation section about "in" in your post! :D it really helped me to clear things up!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

Glad it helped - i fond his videos really clear - he doesn't always cover everything about a topic, because there is so much, but it is amn excellent start to many confusing things. Check out his ne explétif video if that is something you struggle with - it really helped me :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/emnsstar

Thank you so much! :) Very helpful! Especially the youtube video :D

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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i did a lot of editing just look up there I reedited it and added it there. xD

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AlexisLinguist
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Merci beaucoup, parce que I will use this when I resume French. :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ouuta

c'est profitable :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/myelonka
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I still don't get it how English speakers keep pronouncing "é" like "ey". Is it really so difficult to say "e(h)"?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

It seems strange to those that don't struggle; those blessed with an ear for languages. The difficulty is that the sound systems of the two languages are different. Many Anglophones can't even hear that they aren't saying it the right way, they think they are saying it correctly - the anglophone ear is just not tuned to these sounds.

It cuts both ways though - there are English sounds that the French typically struggle with and simply cannot hear that the sounds are different, let alone make the correct one. eg full/fool loose/lose work/walk - the list goes on. Some find it easy, others don't.

There are some funny examples in this thread. Focus is a good one - imagine how it sounds with a very heavy french accent and you will get the picture :) http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=234948

The é is very difficult for many Anglophones because ... it just is :) Just as the English h is incredibly difficult for many Francophones. Isn't that what we love about accents? Having said all that, I do cringe at a heavy English accent in French (mine is quite bad enough I'm sure), while I find a heavy French accent to be delightful in English :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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like when you say tray, fray, say, lay, day, pay. what is your native language?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Juliaz1108

Thank you!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SuzuLingu
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Thanks so much!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/davidbaines1

This should be made essential reading for all.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/refusenick
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Thank you so much for this. I hope you don't mind me sharing with others.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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of course this is a must share!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/shubhz

Amazing! :)

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Terrylouwho

This is an extremely helpful post and will keep it close at hand. Thank you! But I would like to add that as a beginner, I will probably edit out, "but it still drives me up the wall." It is my hope that most french speakers will be as patient with me as I would be of them if they were learning English. Terrylou

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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it means it drives me crazy, or simply it is hard to comprehend. it is good to leave it there learning that you have acquired a piece of an idiomatic expression.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/finn.fr
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Thank you so much! I'm too lazy to see if someone has asked it, but I'd like to know how to distinguish il and elle from ils and elles pronunciation-wise...this has been making me crazy

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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there is no way to distinguish that like

il mange vs ils mangent, no you simply can't. you have to rely on the context.

but you could if it's like ils écrivent vs il écrit; in plural as liaison "s" is pronounced. and note that ent shouldn't be pronounced.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/puppy7989

I'm not French, but I'm fairly sure it's only the regular -er verbs that pose this problem, and only in the present tense. Of course, this constitutes quite a few verbs : (

I think the same difficulty is encountered in the subjunctive in most verb groups - hopefully Adrian, if he sees this, will let us know for sure.

Remember that in real life, you will know from context - it is just these out of context audio only phrases that are difficult.

As Adrian said, if the verb starts with a vowel, you can hear the liaison, BUT remember, you WON'T hear this on slow audio mode, because in slow mode, DL pronounces it as two separate words. So if the verb starts with a vowel, listen carefully to the normal audio, not slow and see if you can hear a liaison.

Also sometimes, the phrase will be be something like Ils mangent LEURS repas - the leurs is a bit of a giveaway even in the audio, although somebody could be eating other people's meals I suppose (Il mange leurs repas) lol.

At your level, you will have come across boire - you can hear the difference with this verb

  • il boit and ils boiVent so you will hear the V on the end.

There are other irregular verbs and verbs in other verb groups where you will easily be able to tell.

  • eg il finit/ils finnissent (-ir verbs) and *il comprend/ils comprennent (-re verbs)
4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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great detailed example! thanks for having a look out on this thread! i am not yet that familiar with subjunctives i will let you know later if i do though!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dhurl

Merci ! All of these are questions I've had at one time or another.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dbzlotrfan
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This will probably be a stupid question but the sounds for the accented "e", I don't think my teacher really explained the difference of the sounds well. I also took Japanese in high-school, why bring Japanese up? If I could get a comparison to Japanese "I & E" sounds (which I have straight in my head) and to the accented "E"'s I might be a bit better at French.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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there's no stupid quetion but i don't get what your question is?

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dbzlotrfan
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For someone to try to give me a comparison between two Japanese sounds (I & E) and the two accented Èéêë 's (if not the rest of the accent's).

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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i dont have idea yet how japanese i and e works because i didn't get to study it yet. heres a closer look how they sound from english:

french e sounds close to ah/ uh

bed = bèd; said

stay = sté; bruleé

noel = noËl; you would rarely encounter this e in french

crepe= crêpe / gêt

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Schrevan

Great resource! Another tip about "c'est" vs. "il est" that helps me is whether it's followed by "à" or "de" after an adjective and before a verb. For example-

"c'est difficile À faire ça" vs. "il est difficile DE faire ça". However, in spoken French it's common to hear "de" used with "c'est" (eg. "c'est difficile de faire ça"), and I've actually been corrected after using "à" with "c'est" by native speakers who don't know differently. That leads me to believe that using "à" after "c'est" is more literary.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianJosh
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great advice! thanks!

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ImperieLinguist

Why can you say "C'est un avocat". I thought that you don't use "a" before an occupation?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mr_JG
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(I am a native French speaker.)

"Je suis avocat", "Il est avocat", yes. But "C'est un avocat" means "It is a lawyer" or "This is a lawyer". I am having a hard time explaining the subtlety, but in the first two cases, "Je suis" and "Il est" are about what they do, whereas the third case is more about identifying what you see (say, by pointing at a picture of a lawyer).

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Joybounce

Merci beaucoup! This is very helpful. I have been making multiple mistakes that you have now corrected. I will try to remember them in the future. :) Again, thank you!

8 months ago
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