"The nurses will have a coffee in the break room."
Translation:Les infirmières prendront un café dans la salle de pause.
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When you're using a noun to describe another noun, as "break"/"pause" is describing "room"/"salle" in this sentence, you just use "de" without the definite article. This contrasts with when you're indicating possession, in which case you use "de" + the appropriate article.
Not sure exactly what your second question refers to, since there isn't an idiom in this sentence. "La salle de pause" is literally "the break room".