"Am I not a teacher?"
Translation:Nach e tidsear a th' annam?
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The first verb you're expecting is "hidden" in the nach at the beginning: that is the negative interrogative form of is. The present tense forms of the copula are: is – cha(n) – an/m – nach
The latter three are just identical to the corresponding sentence-modifying particles. (This is the result of the is that used to be present there being lost through sound change.) So in nach e tidsear a th' annam the nach is not only the sentence modifying particle, it also is/contains the copula.
The copula actually works the same here as elsewhere, cf. 's toigh leam with the corresponding negative cha toigh leam, interrogative an toigh leat?, negative interrogative nach toigh leat?. The literal translations of the latter three are still "it is not pleasant with me", etc. not ˣ"it not pleasant with me"ˣ.
So, if I've understood you correctly, when the verb is tha, the particles require eil / bheil, but if the verb is is, the particle contains the verb?
Which explains why it's is toil leam, cha toil leam and an toil leam, but tha mi ag obair, chan eil mi ag obair and a bheil mi ag obair.