ज़्यादा or और?
Hi! I'm just wondering when it is best to useज़्यादा, and when to use और.
ज़्यादा can be used to mean 'a lot' in absolute terms while और is only used in relative terms.
For example, 'मुझे बहुत भूख लगी है। मुझे ज़्यादा खाना दीजिए।' Here, there is nothing to compare to. You are asking for a lot of food in absolute terms because you are hungry. So, you've used ज़्यादा.
खाना बहुत अच्छा है। मुझे और दीजिए। Here, you are asking for some more food (another serving) because it was tasty. Even after you eat the extra serving, you may have eaten only a small quantity of the food. So, you've used और to say 'more than what you have at present'.
In addition, both ज़्यादा and और can be used as intensifiers for adjectives as TariqSiddi2 mentions.
I've a question which is related to the above one. You have used दीजिए here which I've also seen being used in Hindi movies, so I know it is the imperative form.
But I've never seen it any lessons here, I've only come across दो. Whereas in real life I've come देदो and दीजिए. Can you please explain these different imperative forms? Thanks :)
Each verb in Hindi has three imperative forms corresponding to the three 'you's (तू, तुम and आप).
For देना, the forms are दे, दो and दीजिए.
If you are speaking to someone whom you address as तू (a very close friend or family member of around the same age as yourself), you say दे. If you use तुम with them (someone younger or the same age as you or someone with whom you can be informal), you say दो and if you use आप with them (someone older than you or with whom you are being formal), you say दीजिए.
The next time you do the Imperatives lesson on Duo, you can try submitting the तू and आप level imperatives for practice.
दे दो is not really the imperative form of just देना.
The verbs देना (to give) and लेना (to take) are frequently used in the form of compound verbs with themselves 'दे देना' and 'ले लेना' which roughly mean 'Give to someone else' and 'Take for yourself' respectively. Eg: मैं अपना सारा दौलत गरीबों को दे दूंगा (I will give away all my wealth to the poor), जूलिया हर साल अपने जन्मदिन पर छुट्टी ले लेती है (Julia takes time off from work on her birthday every year)
The imperative forms of the compound verbs in the तुम-level become ले लो and दे दो. You can also have the imperatives in the तू-level (ले ले and दे दे) and in the आप-level (ले लीजिए and दे दीजिए).
Note: Such compound verbs are very common in Hindi. For example, from the base verb खाना, we can make the compound verb खा लेना which roughly means 'eat for yourself' with usage such as 'समय पर खाना खा लो' (Have your food on time). Another example is the compund verb कर देना which roughly means 'do for someone else' implying that the action is for the benefit of someone else and not the doer as in आज तुम मेरा काम कर दो। (Do my work today). You can also have कर लेना which implies that the action is for the doer's benefit as in अपना काम जल्दी से ख़तम कर लो। (Finish your work soon). You can use the verbs by themselves in all the above examples but using such compound verbs introduces an additional layer of clarification and is thus more natural, especially in spoken form.