"You are Joni."
Translation:Sinä olet Joni.
Unlike Swedish, Finnish does not have articles, so no. As others have pointed out, this is about conjugating verbs and it works, at least in the present tense, more or less the same way as in German, French, Spanish, Italian, and most other large languages spoken on the European continent. Here are the present tense forms for olla, "to be", in the singular:
- olen = (I) am
- olet = (you) are
- on = (he, she, it) is
The first two forms are actually regular. All Finnish verbs in the 1st person singular end in -N, and in the 2nd person singular in -T. We do not have very many irregular verbs. :)
I think there's a close equivalent in German, where you similarly modify the verb based on the speaker ("Ich bin", "Du bist", "Er/Es/Sie ist", for example). Polish had something like that as well, when I tried to dip my toes into that course.
I'm no linguist but I think this is part of the case system?
This is just verb conjugation; lots of languages have this concept. Even English to some degree! ("I am" vs. "You are", for example. You wouldn't say "I are" or "You am")
Cases are applied to nouns and function more like adverbial phrases or prepositions in English, something totally different but kind of similar-looking at first glance.
Some tips for you wondering the grammar: THE BE-VERB:
English - Finnish - Spoken language (which I find very important to learn too)
I am - Minä olen - Mä oon
You are - Sinä olet - Sä oot
He/She is - Hän on - Se on
We are - Me olemme - Me ollaan
You are - Te olette - Te ootte
They are - He ovat - Ne on
You can also spot the endings of the verbs (in the formal Finnish part in the middle):
(there can be many, but it's not usually -n)
-vat / -vät
These endings might not be always right but I think they work most of the time. Hope this helped a little.
The endings are correct, all Finnish verbs use this pattern. One note: the 3rd person singular form doesn't get an ending, but usually the vowel of the stem will be duplicated. A few verbs don't follow this duplication, but then they still end in a vowel. (the verb "to be" is an exception though).
ex.: puhua "to speak": puhuN puhuT puhuU (vowel duplication) puhuMME puhuTTE puhuVAT