"Excuse me, who are you?"
Translation:Anteeksi, kuka sinä olet?
Assuming that you're on a desktop Windows PC, you can type ‹ä› by holding down the left alt key, and then pressing 0228 on the numpad, and then releasing the left alt key. Numlock has to be turned on for this to work, and you do have to use the numpad. The numbers on the left side of the keyboard above the letters won't work for this. Likewise, you can do 0246 for ‹ö›. Another option is to just copy "äö" to your clipboard with ctrl+c, and then just paste them every time you want to use one and backspace the one you don't need.
@klettari: "Litteral" translation only makes sense between closely related languages. Finnish is not closely related to any other European languages except Hungarian and Estonian. It's an Uralic language, which has its roots in Asia. Not only has it a different word order, but also it structures relationships between words in a totally different way. It has over a dozen cases, very few propositions, and vowel harmony. Advice: Try to familiarise yourself with the Finnish way of thinking through the examples Duo presents, and do not try to create Finnish "sentences" using linguistic characteristics of English, especially if you are not a native speaker of that language. Happy learning! (Sep 2020)
In the "Tips" section, it says this:
The question word kuka, "who", is followed by words in the same order as if they were in a statement.
I am interpreting this to mean that, when a question contains a question word (who/what/where/etc), the question word goes at the start, and then the rest of the sentence is simply arranged as though it weren't a question at all. I am also interpreting this to mean that, if a question does NOT contain a question word, then the syntax (order of words) probably does change. And Juha757388's comment above would seem to support that.
As a Finnish native, I've pretty much only used the Swedish/Finnish keyboard all my life, so I only just learned the US doesn't have the double dots even as an accent key. I would recommend installing some keyboard layout which adds it but doesn't change the basic keys you're used to, at least not too much. The Canadian French layout might be a good choice due to its similarity to US QWERTY.
Or you could just install the Finnish/Swedish layout as an option too, but that has more changes to where various symbols etc. can be found.
Assuming that you're on a desktop Windows PC, you can type ‹ä› by holding down the left alt key, and then pressing 0228 on the numpad, and then releasing the left alt key. Numlock has to be turned on for this to work, and you do have to use the numpad. The numbers on the left side of the keyboard above the letters won't work for this. Likewise, you can do 0246 for ‹ö›. Another option is to just copy "äö" to your clipboard with ctrl+c, and then just paste them every time you want to use one and backspace the one you don't need. If you don't want to do that, then you'll need to either install a foreign keyboard layout to your machine or you'll need to make a custom keyboard layout. I've taken the latter route. On my keyboard, due to the custom layout I've created, I can type ‹ä› by typing altgr+a and I can type ‹ö› by typing altgr+o. "Altgr" (alt grade) is the "alt" key which is on the right side of the space bar. It's very, very handy. You can create your own custom keyboard layouts using an easy-to-use program called Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator 1.4. It's free, too.
Doctor Wolmar Schildt (Kilpinen) proposed in the 19th century a "stretch script" (venykekirjoitus) that resembled the orthography of LaKatoGranda (except that long vowels were marked ê, not ē). Schildt invented lots of new words that are now in common use, for example: esine, henkilö, jalostaa, kirje, myymälä, määritellä, neliö, opiskella, sairaala, suhde, taide, tiede, uskonto, vankila, yleinen, ympyrä.
If this was meant to be IPA, the ē for long vowels is a new notation for me (but understandable as /e:/), but more importantly, the Finnish is not /a/ iirc, but one of the other a sounds. There likely won't be any confusion even if someone uses /a/, however.
edit: however, as /a/ is somewhat (not exactly, but somewhat) between Finnish ä /æ/ and Finnish a /ɑ/, anecdotally many speakers whose native languages only have /a/ do have trouble differentiating between those two vowels.
Yes, you're right. The Finnish letter ‹a› is associated with the phoneme /ɑ/, not /a/. It's a back vowel, not a front vowel. Though, like you say, there shouldn't really be any confusion, I think, if you use /a/ instead. However, additionally, my understanding is that the Finnish letters ‹e›, ‹ö›, and ‹o› are technically associated with the phonemes /e̞/, /ø̞/, and /o̞/, respectively. They're, like, mid, not high-mid/close-mid. Though, again, using /e/, /ø/, and /o/ shouldn't really cause any confusion.
Ä and ö are not considered accented letters or diacritics in Finnish, but full letters in their own right. Accented e's and such do show up in some surnames, but probably not in any words on the Duolingo course.
If you're on mobile, you should be able to easily install alternative keyboards which include them. Look for a Finnish or Swedish keyboard, they should be identical. On PC, you can do the same in Windows but if your physical keyboard doesn't have enough buttons using the alternative layouts might be tricky. You can learn so-called alt codes for them or set keyboard shortcuts to type the alt codes with a simpler combination like alt+a and alt+o. Or you could just copy-paste them from somewhere when they're needed, but that's a lot of work.
Also, there was already advice on how to type them above. Read the rest of the thread if my comment wasn't clear enough; maybe someone else wrote it better before.