That would be more like "do you have a cheese", since the new information tends to go towards the end of the sentence. The Finnish sentence feels a bit off or incomplete; you could for example add a location in the end like "onko teillä juusto jääkaapissa" ("do you have a chees in the fridge") to make it more natural. Also the unchanged version sounds more natural if you stress the last word to express astonishment: "onko teillä JUUSTO" ("is it a CHEESE that you have").
The Finnish sentence corresponding to English one with the definite article would be "onko juusto teillä", i.e. moving the subject towards the beginning to give it a more familiar (or definite) feeling.