Slavic languages (Polish, Russian, Serbo-croatian, etc.) and Germanic languages (English, German, Swedish, etc,) are two of the many subfamilies of Indo-European languages. So, they are related but it's a very old relation (older than written language) and they changed so much that except for a few words (like "two/dwa") you have to study linguistics to understand the similarities.
In a similar way, Finnish and Estonian belong to one subfamily of Uralic languages and Hungarian to another and they split a very long time ago (probably between 4 and 5 thousand years ago).
Finno Ugric: Finnish :: Indo European: English
Fennic:Finnish::Germanic : English Ugric:Hungarian::Germanic:English::Slavic:Polish
Finno-Ugric- Fennic - Finnish Finno-Ugric - Ugric - Hungarian Indo European- Slavic - Polish Indo -European-Indo -Aryan - Sanskrit
Related the same way you are related to an ancestor born 3000 years ago. The DNA is there but that's about it.
just in case you were wondering, these 3 (suomi, eesti and magyar in their native tongues) are also the ONLY non Indo-european languages in Europe that are official on a national level. and that is it, no other.
P.s. non nerds/ geeks, please stop reading.
Also, note that i did not include 1. Turkish, since only 14% of turks live in europe, 2. Maltese, because its an island geographically equidistant from Africa and Europe, and not part of continental europe historically, same argument for turkish in Cyprus (its closer to Asia) and Greenlandic (although part of Denmark, it is technically in North America). Basque, Saami and other small languages, as mentioned, aren't official on a national level. let me know if i have missed any, but i find it's a nice bit of trivia hidden in the lesson.
Georgian (Kartuli ena) is a non-IE language (Kartvelian), and it's the official language of Georgia which is in Europe.
Azeri is a Turkic (i.e. non-IE) language, though one can argue that Azerbaijan is in Asia and not Europe. Armenian is an IE language.
Also, several non-IE languages spoken in Russia are official on a sub-national level.
What the three languages (Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian) do have in common is of course that they are the major Uralic languages.
Caucasus mountain ridge is commonly considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia. If we accept this line, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia belong to Asia, as these three countries are located to the south of the Caucasus ridge. Nevertheless, Christianity is the main religion in Georgia and Armenia, so culturally they could be considered as a part of Europe.
Raconteur mentions why Finns and Estonians can feel linguistic kinship with Hungarians even though the languages are only distantly related. If you meet abroad a person from your own country, you can feel as if they were an acquaintance, when all the others are foreigners. In the same way, while the Finno-Ugric people are so few, we can feel that we belong together, although a look at the languages may cause disappointment: where is the similarity?
Under "Nations, nationalities, and their languages."
During the period between the world wars there was more of co-operation and mutual national sentiment between Finland, Estonia and Hungary. The three countries held culture conferences, there were meetings of theologians, etc. A "heimopäivä" (tribal day) was celebrated annually in October. Finnish school books had pictures of three brisk boys in national colors of Finland, Estonia and Hungary. Nationalism was a strong feeling in the newly independent countries. As the doors to the Eastern linguistic relatives became closed with the Bolshevik revolution, ties were strenthened between those cousins who had the opportunity to meet each other.
When communism collapsed in Hungary, and especially with the singing revolution of Estonia, sentiment of Finno-Ugric brotherhood was again kindled in Finland. Perestroika and glasnost in Gorbachev's period turned interest even to the ethnic groups that speak Finno-Ugric languages in Russia. Now, the growing authoritarian rule of Putin in Russia, and limitations of democracy in Hungary have had an impact to cool off the feelings of Finno-Ugric togetherness.
Kolme uralilaista kieltä. In Finnish you have to use the singular partitive case (uralilaista + kieltä) with numbers other than one. Partitive is the most difficult case in Finnish to grasp and to use. Because these languages are no more spoken in the Ural mountains, we say rather "uralilainen kieli" (Uralic language) than "Uralin kieli".
You have to make it more understandable. Right now it is just Finland, Estonia and Hungary. There is no sign that they are languages .If you want to say languages, it is suomen kieli, viron kieli ja unkarin kieli. Not just a word suomi, viro ja unkari. Just how I understand it. If nationality then - suomalainen, virolainen ja unkarilainen.