"The old oak is right there, so the sauna is somewhere over here."
Translation:Vanha tammi on tuossa, joten sauna on jossain täällä.
Indeed they are! There are still many sentences in the course, which do not accept jossakin. We're adding them slowly in. I've edited this sentence now, but it will take a week or two for the course to adopt my edit. Please remember to report any oddities or missing translations by using the flag icon. The more reports we get, the more likely we are to notice something is wrong or missing. :)
It may help to know that "therefore" and "hence" would be the more formal translation options here. They are closer to joten in terms of meaning, but the Finnish word is not as formal, so we went with "so" as the primary translation. I'll include them as alternative translations. As usual, it will take a few weeks for the edits to show up in the course. :)
The root words are tämä, "this", and tuo, "that". You can't have front vowels like Ä in the same word back vowels like O and U.
- tämä + the inessive SSÄ = tässä right here
- tämä + the adessive LLÄ = täällä right there
- tuo + the inessive SSA = tuossa over here
- tuo + the adessive LLA = tuolla over there
In theory, it should be tämässä (sic) and tämällä (sic), but those words don't exist. Instead we have the shorter and a bit irregular (and easier to pronounce) tässä and täällä. :)
The inesssive is the SSA/SSÄ ending which most often means "in (something)", as in Berliinissä, "in Berlin". The adessive is the LLA/LLÄ ending which most often means "on (something)", as in tuolilla, "on the chair", or minulla, "on me". In the context of this sentence, tässä, "right here", is something that is where the speaker is and tuossa, "right there", is slightly further away. täällä, "over here", is a larger area closer to the speaker than the person spoken to, whereas tuolla, "over there", is far away from both.
So, the location of the oak (tuossa) is relatively close to the speaker but not exactly where they are. The sauna is somewhere (jossain) in the same area (täällä) but not exactly where the speaker or the oak are. Someone arrives in an area they've visited before but don't remember too well looking for a sauna. They spot an oak they remember seeing close to the sauna, so they know the sauna is somewhere in the area although they're not quite sure where.
You can read more about tässä and tuossa in the Tips for Barbecue, and about täällä and tuolla in the Tips for Sights. The Tips for Outdoors 1 talk about word order and how that affects the article in the English translation. :)
A general Duo question. I'm using an android phone and I've never seen any tips or explanations, only exercises which include hints when you click on words. Because of that I'm mostly using these discussions to follow new grammar. How can I access the tips? Also your links above are behaving like plain text for me, no click through and I can't see or copy the URLs. I've noticed before that sometimes links work and sometimes Duo seems to lock them.
Tips for Finnish are not found on the app. Only courses made by Duo staff (not volunteers) have them there (I don't know why). So to get tips normally you have to use the browser version.
All tips for Finnish can also be found in a single page in Duome (an unofficial site not maintained by Duolingo):