"Elää" means "to live". It can be for animals or humans, since both animals and humans live. Tip: A related word that has been covered in this course is "eläin," which means "animal" - a "living thing".
"Asua" means "to reside" or "to live in a place". Tip: A related word that has been covered in this course is "asunto," which means an apartment or "residence". "Asua" is normally just used for humans since it is used for talking about living (residing) in a particular city, country, neighborhood, etc. and that's something we don't normally say about animals. (Not impossible - just not the most normal thing to say.)
But I'd never say "kamelit asuvat Egyptissä". I'd use that only if they lived in a zoo or so, but not when they live in the wilderness. I also would never say about a human that "hän elää Egyptissä", even if they were homeless or a wandered whatsoever. That's still "Hän asuu Egyptissä."