Terve! I think I've started to plateau, I need help! Kiitos.
I am enjoying learning the suomalainen tongue, but I am struggling a LOT with the pronouns like 'they, we, you, etc.' in questions and the relationships of the pronouns with verbs combining "onko" as in: tanssiiko.
How can I consistently comprehend these cases? Is there a simple way to remember for English speakers? I'm just going to keep practicing until something clicks.
First take a look at the endings:
- minä olen / tanssin
- sinä olet / tanssit
- hän on / tanssii
- me olemme / tanssimme
- te olette / tanssitte
- he ovat / tanssivat
Those are the suffixes you need and you will be adding those to the words you use. With the plurals it can help that me always uses -mme and te uses -tte and they kinda rhyme with the pronouns.
And as siaure said already, when you're forming a question, you just add -ko/-kö (depending on the vowel harmony) to the end of the verb:
- olenko / tanssinko minä?
- oletko / tanssitko sinä?
- onko / tanssiiko hän?
- olemmeko / tanssimmeko me?
- oletteko / tanssitteko te?
- ovatko / tanssivatko he?
I cannot help you with the grammar, but I look at Finnish sentences like this: I know quite a few words so I try to match up the word stem. Then, knowing that much of the 'meaning of direction' goes into the ending, I make a guess at that part. For instance "-ko" indicates a question, and just before that ending you can mostly figure out who is being addressed or what direction things are moving.
In the tests I am usually surprised to see how Finnish requires so many less words than the English translation. But then again, the extra "in/to/from/of/the/it" etc. sprinkled in between make English sentences easier to deconstruct than the Finnish ones.
Maybe you can tickle your brain in the right direction by watching some youtube standup comedy in Finnish. If you don't get the jokes you still train the ears and at some point you may even spot the patterns.