"There is a man, a dog, and lots of cheese on the moon."
Translation:Kuussa on mies, koira ja paljon juustoa.
This is so called existential clause, something is somewhere. In English they almost always begin with "There is/are…" because of the strict word order requirement, thus "there" is the (formal) subject. In Finnish you can have a clause without a subject as is case here. Note also the word order, you begin with the place.
Is there a dog on the moon? I've heard of the man in the moon, I've heard of the moon's being made of [green] cheese, but not of a dog in the moon. Is it a Finnish thing, or am I merely exposing my ignorance of lunar geography? I know there's "First dog on the moon," cartoons in The Guardian and all, but still. . .
In part. Quantities and numbers other than yksi are indeed followed by the partitive. Thus 'paljon juustoa', 'vähän kakkua', 'kilo juustoa', and kaksi kakkua.
Moreover, in existential/possessive sentences with the word order location/possessor-verb-subject, an uncountable subject like 'cheese' or 'water' would need to be partitive. Thus the sentence 'Pitsassa on sipulia, tomaattia, juustoa, ja makkaraa'.