"D'abord tu composes le numéro et après, tu parles."
Translation:First, you dial the number, and after, you speak.
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We're not leaving words out--we're translating the idea from idiomatic French to idiomatic English. To this native Midwestern English speaker, "after" grates, because we say "then." As for example, in this exercise, we have repeatedly translated "to dial" as "composer," even though there is no longer a dial on most of our phones, nor are we composing a number--but in idiomatic English and French, that's the word that is used.
Using an object after isn't, but requiring it is. It's perfectly correct to end a clause with after https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/180398/whats-the-difference-between-after-and-afterwards/180401#180401
Stack exchange is just some noisy people's opinions, with no quality control. It is no authority on anything.
If you read it carefully, you can see that the extract from the dictionary shows why 'after' is incorrect here!
The real problem is that we'd use, in English, 'then', not 'afterwards' (or 'after'). That's true in US and British English, though you will always be able to find those who can't express themselves grammatically in their own language.
The good news is that, as we improve in French, we start understanding and stop translating!
There's rarely one correct word for the situation. You may prefer "then" for a particular situation but that doesn't mean everyone else does. I'm a native speaker and have used after without an object many times and heard it used by other native speakers the same way many times.
If you do dial a phone, there's another step that young people don't know about. First you pick up the receiver, then you dial the number, then you speak. Since this is about teaching someone the basics of making a phone call, you shouldn't leave that out.
You can possibly be able to leave out the part about waiting for a dial tone though.
As an instruction I'd agree, but that is not, as far as I know, a valid translation. Kind of on the edge though if they use "composes" to mean "entres" the way we often use "dial" to mean "enter". I'm curious if some countries still widely use dial systems. About 30 years ago I think it was The Philippines someone called and they described it all being dial phone and a party line, and it seemed out-of-date then. A lot can happen in 30 years, but I'm not sure how much happens in other countries.