Not really. We're asking about the clock's state now. "Did the clock stop?" asks about what happened with the clock in the past, but it doesn't necessary have any bearing on the present. "Has the clock stopped?" means we're asking about it's state (of not going) now.
It is also to stand, but apparently it is used idiomatically to mean an item is stopped possibly (or at a halt maybe would be another way to look at it). I'm assuming it's used specifically with inanimate objects, but I really don't know the exact rules of this, so if anyone else can chime in, that'd be sweet!
"Has the clock stopped?" feels like a very not literal translation, but then I don't find any good English translation that would match the actual meaning of this sentence in present tense like this one does. Irl Finnish how would you say this sentence in some past/perfect tense so it actually means "Clock has stopped"?
Most literally, you can say Kello on pysähtynyt and several native speakers have said that is a more common way to say it anyway. I think at this point in the course, they're keeping everything to the present tense in Finnish. It just so happens that in English, the present perfect is the only way to translate it adequately. The only other way I can really think of is to say "The clock is not going", but then there would be complaints that we're flipping a sentence to make it negative and using an opposite word, but that's only because we don't have a good stative verb for "not go" or "be stationary" in English that would work well in this situation.