"Son café était froid alors il s'est mis en colère."
Translation:His coffee was cold, so he got angry.
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That's the same essential meaning, since it was the coffee being cold that made him angry, but you have changed the wording too much and switched around grammatical relations, and now you're no longer translating the sentence. "It made him angry" makes 'him' the object that the event of cold coffee is acting on; however, il s'est mis en colère has 'he' as the subject, il. The focus is on the man as the subject.
It's all very well trying to make some form of literal translation work, but none of the alternatives discussed here sit very well in English. If you ignore the French for a moment and consider what this is about then in English we would probably say something such as: "His coffee was cold, which made him angry." or, if you have to use "got": "He got angry because his coffee was cold". However it's all a bit extreme - life's too short to stress about the temperature of coffee, just stick it in the microwave for 30 seconds!
sean.mullen: On one side, you're right, of course, but in French (at least), if the subject of the second part of a sentence is a pronoun (here 'il'), it generally refers to the subject of the first part of the sentence (here 'coffee'). In English, the pronoun referring to 'coffee' would be 'it', not 'he', but in French, as 'coffee' is a masculine noun, it will be 'il' in both cases.
Where did you learn that "in French, if the subject of the second part of a sentence is a pronoun, it generally refers to the subject of the first part"? I've never heard that before, and it frankly doesn't make sense. Of course il can refer to a masculine object as well as a male person, but you're being pedantic; coffee doesn't get angry. Alors is a subordinating conjunction, and the subjects of subordinate clauses don't have to match the subjects of independent clauses in any language I know of.
Haha. Perhaps you are seeking obtuseness (if that is a word) where none exists! Try thinking about a literal translation of the second clause: "...so he put himself in (a state of) anger." or ".. it put itself in a state of anger". Inanimate objects/materials are not generally able to do this. However as we move forwards into 2022 perhaps AI and machine learning may eventually create a type of coffee that will start frothing and bubbling with anger as it cools off - rather than the coffee in my old-fashioned percolator that pops and bubbles as it gets hot :-D