I'm trying to understand why the partitive case would be used for that -- is it because you'd only say "jäätelö on hyvää" while eating the ice cream and not having finished it yet? Or because "hyvä" would make an absolute statement about the quality, while "hyvää" restricts it to one's own observation / experience? (I realise that there will be instances for which the theoretical description of a case's usage might simply not fit very well, I'm wondering if there is a "logical" explanation here, though)?
Although it is a specified ice cream, 'jäätelö' is still a mass noun, which requires that the adjective 'hyvä' is in partitive case.
Quite often we use maistua + ablative case (-lta/ltä) (=taste) but I'm not sure if that structure is covered in the course. It would be Tämä jäätelö maistuu tosi hyvältä.
They belong to the same "true/real" family. Tosi = true, real. Todella = truly, really. Todellisuus = reality. Totuus = truth. Etc.
Todella is technically based on word tosi (singular tosi + adessive ending -lla, with t>d gradation of the body). It is a properly formed adverb, thus the one for formal writing. Tosi is very popular, too, especially in spoken language. Both are used a lot. It does not sound too formal to say to your friends that ice cream is "todella hyvää" or too colloquial to write them it is "tosi hyvää".
Yes, it is called the vowel harmony.
Finnish vowels are classified into three parts:
- Back vowels - a, u, o
- Middle vowels - e, i
- Front vowels - ä, y, ö
And a Back vowel and a Front vowel cannot get mixed in one word (and its affixes).
So, the partitive case for 'ice cream' is jäätelöä, and not jäätelöa (the last -a would break the rule). In other words, you need to find a right vowel when you attach a suffix to a word - this is the reason why sometimes you might see
-A as a partitive case suffix: it means that it's going to be either -a or -ä.
- In a compound word, the vowel group of the last word gets chosen: työmaa -> työmaata (not työmaatä).
- When a noun contains only Middle vowels, then Front vowels are used: kieli -> kieltä (not kielta).
Cool! Thanks! It's an interest thing, the language of the land I am from, Bashkir also has this law of vowel harmony. And Bashkortostan is in Urals and Finnish is a Uralic language. But Bashkir is turkic... I wonder could there be any interchange between the languages from the same territory but from different language families...
Hey, I am also a Bashkir from Bashkortostan! Nice to meet you! About the Turkic and Uralic languages similarity, there's a theory that Turkic languages are Altaic, and Altaic language family also belongs to Ural-Altaic language family. Besides Turkic languages, Altaic language family also includes Tungusic, Mongolic, (probably) Japonic and (probably) Koreanic languages. All of them are agglutinative (gets more meaning by attaching suffixes to the end), shared basic vocabulary, including words for such items as "eye", "ear", "blood", "water", "stone" and etc. So yeah, this is explainable only this way. Although that theory is strongly criticized for some reason, it also has numerous supporters, but there's no exact answer.