"He eats a banana."
Translation:वह केला खाता है।
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It doesn't matter whether you include एक or not; because the word केला is already singular. When you write वह केला खाता है।→He eats a banana. then you're generally answering the question like 'what does he eat?' ( interested to know the name of the food item rather than the quantity).
When you write वह एक केला खाता है।→He eats a banana/ He eats one banana. then you're basically giving stress on the quantity of the food i.e. 1 as if answering the question 'How many bananas does he eat?'. ( interested in knowing the quantity rather than the type of food.)
Also, keep in mind that both the sentences will be correct in Hindi. In English, if you ommit the a before the singular 'banana' as in the sentence "He eats banana" then it's regarded as grammatically incorrect.. however, In Hindi, it doesn't matter whether you ommit एक or not.
वह(he/she/it/that) is gender neutral. The word signifying the gender —which is being talked about —in the sentence is खाता which is the singular masculine conjugation (simple present here) of the root verb "खाना" (to eat). Its feminine conjugation will be खाती(simple present here). Unlike English, like in the sentence "I go" where you cannot tell the gender, the hindi sentence will generally do so with a diactric (vowel sound indication marks like ा (for male),ी (for female) in our case) attached to the root verb.
मैं जाता हूँ ।(masculine for "I go"; the speaker is a male).
मैं जाती हूँ ।(feminine for "I go"; the speaker is a female). ;Root verb= जाना(to go)
This rule is true for the singulars.
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