"Does he speak any English?"
Translation:Spreekt hij enig Engels?
Yes mostly, however months and days are not capitalised. Apart from that difference I think it's pretty much the same. However there are some specific rules regarding names like De Groot and Van der Linde etc, but these probably only start being important for intermediate or advanced learners.
Not exactly. Geen means none for things you can have an amount of. You would be saying, 'Does he not speak English?' instead of 'Does he speak any English?' if you used geen in place of enig.
I hope you understand the gist of what I'm trying to get at.
I think it should be "Spreekt hij enig Engels". The way I understand it is that adjectives with "de" nouns take "enige" and "het" nouns take "enig". I remember it by '''de" ending in "e" so adjectives for '"de" nouns end in "e". The bottom section of this link might help you: http://www.dutchgrammar.com/ro/?n=Pronouns.Id12-Draft
No. That would be like saying "Does he speak a few English?" But you could say, "Spreekt hij enkele Engelse woorden?" meaning "Does he speak a few English words?"
Wicketd's comment is correct. "Enig" or "enige" can mean " some, any" or "the only one". But not just "only". "Does he speak only English" would translate to "Spreekt hij alleen Engels?" Or you could say "Is Engels de enige taal die hij spreekt?" Hope this helps.