The correct is to use the verb "haver" (há, houve, haverá) to mean "there to be". But, informally, we use "ter" to mean the same thing.
"Waste" is most of time translated as "desperdiçar" but I think they should accept both...
Any particular way há is pronounced that is clearly different from 'a' or 'á'?
when you use "a" and when "que"? (i think in spanish it would be "que perder")
It's not an article, it's a preposition, and yes, both the article and the preposition are "a".
it depends on the structure
- não há nada a perder
- há muito para estudar
I think there is not a rule, maybe...
I've noticed: É hora + DE; aprender + A; começar + A; ter (um trabalho importante) + A (realizar); ter (muito) + O QUE (fazer); saber (+ COMO --- sometimes); pensar + EM; ... and now - Não há tempo + A.
Is there a list of verbs and phrases that take 'something' before an Infinitive and where can we find it?
Well, I don't think it's gonna be so easy to find a list of these rules.
For example, here you have the prepositions used after some verbs starting with "a": http://solinguagem.blogspot.com.br/2011/04/regencia-verbal.html
It may help you. then you can look up the other verbs too as needed!
Prepositions is a hard predicament in every language.
Could the phrase also be put as "Há não tempo a perder"? To mean "There is (no time) to waste"?