As "filhos" can refer to sons and daughters, does "aos homens" refer to men only? Can it be "people" or "men and women" in this case?
Yes, "filhos" can refer to 'sons' or both 'sons and daughters'.
"Homens" can refer to 'men' or both 'men and women'. But in the sense of 'men and women' it is more and more out-of-date.
If you want to refer to 'men and women' below can apply, depending on the context:
"Homens e mulheres" - men and women;
"Pessoas" - people;
"Humanos" - humans;
"Seres humanos" - human beings;
"Humanidade" - humankind / mankind.
Is this always the word ¨aos¨ when you´re giving money or things to people? What about food for example?
ele da comida aos caes (don´t have accents on this keyboard). Or for example, ela da agua aos meninos. Do those work as well?
Yup, the same way.... dar + a/para.
- "Ela dá comida aos pobres" (a+os)
- "Nós damos às nossas filhas o dinheiro..." (a+a)
- "Eu LHE dei o dinheiro" (I gave him/her the money - indirect object)
- "Dê-me seu ingresso" (Give me your ticket)
- "Dar-lhe-ei a receita médica" (I'll give him/her the prescription - formal way of saying something)
- "Não posso dá-lo a você" (I can't give it to you)
- "Peça sabedoria, e essa ser-lhe-á dada" (Ask for wisdom and that will be given you)
if "dá"="dar + a" my answer "He gives THE money to the men" should be accepted ?