"How many weeks and years does it take?"
Translation:Hoeveel weken en jaren duurt het?
Not exactly due to a subtle difference. "does it last" indicates a consumable item which over time is used up. Whereas "does it take" doesn't necesarilly. Your sentence "How many weeks and years does it last", in Dutch is best translated as "Hoeveel weken en jaren gaat het mee".
No, in this case that's not possible. "Nemen" (NL) can sometimes be translates by "to take" (EN), but in that case it is often literally, in the sense of to physically take something. In those cases it can be substituted by the Dutch word "pakken". (similar to 'picking up" something = 'oppakken"). Here you cannot substitute it by 'pakken'.
In this case there are only two options: 1) "duurt" from the infinitif "duren". Which as zigivicious points out, is similar to "to last", or 2) "kost" which is similar to the English translation "cost", --> "How much time does it cost". Strangely enough "kost het" is not considered correct by Dualingo, but in Dutch it resembles the same difference as take/cost.