Translation:She does not dare to go home alone at night.
I'm unfamiliar with this more complicated setup as well. I thought it meant she "dares to not go home alone" instead of "not daring to go home alone". The prior sounds like she is daring to take someone risky home. For me it's a question of knowing when to position the "niet" so that it means the right thing.
This is a long time back, but just in case. The 's doesn't apply to the verb, it applies to the time after it: 's nachts. While (des) was used for the genitive case, now it's used before a unit of time to signify repetition. " 's nachts" being "in the night times" just like how 's ochtends means "in the mornings"
Heer des huizes is indeed a fixed expression that is still used. However all the Couperus references are old fashioned (which makes sense as he lived in the late 19th and early 20th century). Also the Geert Mak reference is not really everyday language, he probably had artistic reasons to use this form. You can compare commissaris van de koning (governor) which don't use the case system anymore, so no more: des konings/der koningin.
A few examples of fixed expressions which use cases, that are still used commonly:
- op den duur = in the long run
- te allen tijde = at all times
- in groten getale = in big numbers (usually refers to many people showing up)
I want to say no, but I'm not fluent so I wouldn't have the authorisation. Then again, place names are with 's ('s Gravenbrakel in flanders for example) so it's obviously not a recent thing, and also 's is the standard. Then again people still use "thou" sometimes in English so I'm not sure really.
There are examples when it certainly has appeared in the last 125 years, especially in a religious context, for instance de heer des huizes, de handlanger des Heeren, het wezen des Woords, de vervloekingen des hemels, het graf des Profeten (all taken from Louis Couperus), or, if you want something more recent (albeit a quotation), spion des konings (Geert Mak, 2000).