Why isn't "All men are strong, except I" the correct translation? It appears that "behalve" is being used as a conjunction, since it is followed by the subject "ik". A 1 to 1 translation would be to translate to the English word "except" used as a conjunction, not a preposition. Translating a conjunction and a subject pronoun into a preposition and object pronoun doesn't make sense to me.
English is idiosyncratic in using "me" in this kind of sentence, even though it's the subject of the sentence. So just remember that English doesn't always use "me" for subjects ("I'm going to the park. Me too!" and not "I too!" even though this is also a subject). Dutch preserves the subject meaning by using the subject form "ik" and not the object form "mij/me."
I would suspect that the sentence "They like all men, except for me" would be "Zij houden van alle mannen, behalve mij/me" and not "behalve ik" but I'd have to wait for a native Dutch speaker to confirm that...
You are right. And we Dutchies prove that a sentence works like this by rearaning it by simply saying 'They do not love me', 'Zij houden niet van mij'. It means the exact same in the end and proves that mij/me needs to be used here instead of ik. 'Zij houden van alle mannen, behalve mij'.
Because in English sometimes 'me' is used for first case subjects. For instance in phrases like: 'me too', 'he is taller than me', 'me and my friend are playing', etc. This is confusing, but also in English, these are subjects. Dutch is just more consistent when using the different pronouns for different cases.
It's used in cases where "me" could be substituted with "I am." I'm going to the store / me to / I am, too." Ditto, "He is taller than me / He is taller than I am." The third example, "me and my friend are playing," is formally incorrect, at a level that the other two are not; "my friend and I are playing" is perfectly normal (and in fact, you'll hear people misapply it to the objective case, when "me" should be used--they should say, "he have it to her and me," but will say, "he gave it to she and I," in the mistaken belief that "I" is always "more correct."
Consider the following English sentences:
1. He is taller than me.
2. He is taller than I am.
3. He is taller than I.
In 1, the word "than" is being used as a preposition, followed by a pronoun in the objective case.
In 2, the word "than" is being used as a conjunction, followed by a complete clause (with its own subject and verb).
In 3, the word "than" is being used as a conjunction, followed by a clause in which the subject is stated but the verb is implied rather than explicitly stated.
In line with above analysis, I would say that in the Dutch sentence here, "behalve" is being treated as a conjunction (not a preposition): All men are strong, except I (am not).
But of course smoother English (which DL correctly gives here) is to translate using the preposition (not the conjunction): All men are strong except for me.