" agus sí."

Translation:He is and she is.

August 25, 2014

105 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/s_jmp
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for one second i thought it switched to japanese

August 27, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Nitram.
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I am guessing you've never heard Japanese...

April 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/s_jmp
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good for you that you have heard it

July 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/SunilUpadh

How i can lern

April 24, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/RyanOkushi
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Just wait until the Japanese course is made, or go on some other language-learning website.

May 28, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/HPFoley
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Until a Japanese course is made on Duolingo—unfortunately, there are none in the works, it seems—I would recommend using the book Genki.

April 2, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/themdenkmemes
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There is now. ;)

April 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/fyggs
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I can see where they're coming from... if you put all of the stresses in different places and said it very quickly and in a clipped sharp way, it might sound a little like Japanese. ;p

March 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/SunilUpadh

Yes

April 24, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Clayton405368

I was pretty sure it was Hebrew until I checked and it was Irish... But I mean, isn't every language similar to Irish, really?

October 9, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/gijira

This doesn't sound like Japanese though.

April 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/EyeKyu89

Why so?

November 9, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Seax_Blade

Sounds like it (my roommate watches anime; Japanese just sounds like Japanese lol

December 18, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/RyanOkushi
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Japanese sounds nothing like Irish.

December 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AnnaWasHere.Love

I love anime! ;p

April 4, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/tonallyambiguous

actually it sounded like chinese for a second xD

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/nefter
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Me too!

August 28, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/SunilUpadh

Ok

April 24, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/smoshea

Man, a unit on how vowel pronunciation is influenced by the surrounding consonants would be SO USEFUL.

September 19, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/ataltane
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I see this question, and related questions, coming up a lot, so I'll try to answer it. This is a long explanation with lots of examples. You might need to read this over a few times too see how everything fits together, but then you'll know it for good. It shouldn't be too hard to understand, and once you grasp it, it'll seem straightforward.

I'm not going to be super strict about representing the exact sounds involved, as I just want to provide a reference to help people get their head around some unfamiliar things.

Forget about how Irish is spelled for the moment. We're just talking about sounds at the beginning. Most consonants in Irish occur in two differently pronounced variants. Traditionally, they're called leathan and caol—broad and narrow—but I'm going to buck tradition and call them hard and soft, as that terminology might be familiar to some, for example from Slavic languages, and probably is more suggestive anyway.

Soft (caol, narrow) constants are technically what's called palatalized consonants , which means that they tend toward having a 'y' sound incorporated in them. Sometimes it really just sounds like there's an extra 'y': like the word for 'woman' (spelt bean) has a soft b and is said rather like 'byan'. A soft b sounds rather like 'by'. A soft 't', on the other hand can sound like 'ty' (as in Irish/UK pronunciation of "tune") but will often be pronounced like 'ch' in "chin". The variation basically depends on the dialect and causes no difficulties for anyone—just like US "tune" versus Irish/UK "tune". As a learner, listen to the recordings, choose one way of doing it and be consistent.

Hard consonants, in contrast, have a sort of a w-quality, as opposed to the y-quality of soft consonants. This can be especially obvious before i or e. So the word for "yellow" consists of a hard b followed by a long i, and it sounds like bwee. Now, it's spelt buí, but don't think that b=b, u=w, and í=ee. What's actually happening is that the u is flagging the b as hard, and therefore as having a w-sound incorporated in it. This flagging is exactly what I want to describe here.

I'm not going to describe the difference between hard and soft for each sound here. Instead, I'll tell you how to identify them in words you see written. Then you can listen to the recordings and learn what they actually sound like.

OK, here goes:

Irish has two 't' sounds, two 'b' sounds, and so on. But the Latin alphabet has only one letter 't', one letter 'b', etc. So the hardness or softness of a consonant is indicated in spelling by the vowel that comes before or after it. Letters A O and U indicate a hard consonant. Letters I and E indicate a soft consonant. Here's the crucial rule:

Short vowel letters that are flagging an adjacent consonant as hard or soft are not pronounced themselves, unless there's no other vowel available.

(NB: these silent letters may seem to be pronounced sometimes, but what you're really hearing—if the pronunciation is right—is the hard or soft consonant with the 'w' or 'y' sound incorporated in it.)

So:

The word for "yellow" is spelled "buí". There a consonant: B. Is it hard or soft? Well, it's followed by a U, which makes the B hard. OK, cool. Do we pronounce the U? Well, a hard B has a kind of a w-sound inside it, but it's not a full vowel, just an off-glide. If there was no other vowel available, we'd say the U. So the imaginary word bu would be said as hard B followed U—sort of like bwu or bu. But here we have another vowel: í. So we don't say the U. We've got hard B followed by long I: bwee.

If the U wasn't there, the I would make the B soft: we'd have byee — although 'y' and 'ii' (long i) sound so similar that you mightn't really head the y-offglide, and it sounds more like bee. In fact, this is another real word: , which means "to be".

If you see a work like fear ("man"), you can tell it's soft F and hard R - but which vowel do you say, E or A? Actually, you say A (soft F, A, hard R: a bit like fyar though the y is just a hint). Now, you just have to learn that for the pattern ea. It's very common, so it's worth learning.

But there's a significant simplification: vowels marked long are always the one that is pronounced. This is very helpful, as its very, very common to see a long vowel beside a short one, as in téad "rope". In such pairs, the short vowel is not pronounced: it just marks the D as hard. Téad is thus pronounced: soft T, long E, hard D: tyeyd or cheyd.

If a word teád existed, it would be: soft T, long A, hard D: tyaud or chaud

Finally, the rule that ties everything together:

Leathan le leathan, caol le caol

"Broad with broad, narrow with narrow"

It's really the consonants that are "broad" (hard) or "narrow" (soft), but this rule is referring to the vowel letters that symbolize them: we can see what it's talking about by considering the word féarach, which means "pasture". This word is pronounced:

Soft F, long E, hard R, A, KH: fyeerakh, with a fleeting 'y' sound.

Now think about this: the fyee syllable on its own could be spelled . The 'rakh' syllable on its own could be spelled like rach. But if we naively join them together to make férach, we have a problem: vowels affect consonants they come before, as well as those they come after (this allows us to spell the word: I followed by soft M, which means butter, as im). So, in our hypothetical férach, the É tells us that the R is soft, but the A tells us it's hard! We must match leathan vowel with leathan vowel, as the rule says: we insert the A to avoid contradictions, and everything is clear:

The F is soft because it's followed by É. The É is pronounced, because all long vowels are pronounced. The two As make the R hard. The first A is not pronounced, since we already have vowel in the first syllable, and the second A is pronounced, since there's no other vowel available.

Some compound words will break the "leathan le leathan, caol le caol rule", such as comhrialtas ("coalition", literally "co-government"). So if you see an A O or U matched on the other side of a consonant group with I or E, you can more or less be sure that there are two independent words or elements in there.

February 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Ridhima2002

dude. that's... long.

June 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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That's the short version. Simple fact of learning a language: anything that doesn't happen in your own language needs isn't easy to explain.

June 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/-Zorua-
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Wow. This is a great explanation, thanks!

August 11, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/ushf
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I really appreciate this explanation but am a bit confused about the exact sounds indicated here: "Soft F, long E, hard R, A, KH: fyeerakh, with a fleeting 'y' sound."

Would you mind writing that in IPA symbols? Especially the "ee" part.

July 14, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
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An IPA transcription for féarach could vary by dialect, e.g. /ˈfʲiːɾˠ.əx/ in Munster, /ˈfʲeːɾˠ.əx/ in Connacht, and /ˈfʲeːɾˠ.a(h)/ in Ulster — ataltane’s description was for a Connacht pronunciation.

February 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Ana_BadWolf

A lesson in every language about pronunciation would be really helpful.

November 14, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/GypsyHeart1

Try this link ... http://www.omniglot.com. it's actually good and you can learn many languages. Good luck!

January 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Glyc3rius
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Does this sentence make sense? If yes, in which case?

August 25, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/oppikoppi
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Who amongst them is invited?—He is and she is.

August 25, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/p8c
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lobbens, i like your reply. it makes sense to me.

August 27, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/gengosuki

I guess it's all about the context.

July 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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Not really. If you're selecting multiple people for an answer, you'd be expected to use the emphatic forms of the pronouns, not the plain ones used here.

August 25, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/ataltane
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I don't think the Irish makes much sense as it is. It needs some context. The same goes for the English, too.

January 31, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Caleb_J.

i didnt get it either

September 24, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/brjaga
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When do you say "sé" and "sí" as opposed to "é" and "í"?

August 26, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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Easy... "sí" is "she", just like the pronunciation suggests. "í" is "her"

August 27, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/EceNalbant

But when you say she is a girl, you're using í and not sí. So I still don't get the difference

December 3, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/sehrdoof

Someone else mentioned í/é are special cases used only with the copula - ie. "is"

January 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AGreatUserName
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But then what is "tá" and how is it different from "is"? So far, all I can guess is that "is ... í/é" are used when you put something in the middle and "tá sí/sé" are used with no noun in between them.

April 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/favoprocione
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"is" isn't exactly a verb and so this is a special case - it's all explained in the lesson notes. "is" is the copula, and is used to equate things, whereas "ta'" is from the verb "bi'" and uses the normal pronouns because it's a real verb.

April 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/AGreatUserName
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Thanks. I didn't even see that there were lesson notes until much later. And I can't reply to your comment, so I'm replying to mine. Not sure you'll see it.

April 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/LMAlbert777
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Awesome, thanks, that helps me a lot. How simple when you think of it. :-)

September 25, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Windrammer
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Learn about the predicate (the sky is blue, I am a man, etc.). "É" and "í" is used with the copula "is" as in "is fear é" (he is a man).

December 2, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Angeluzfun
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The speaking exercises don't work for me in Irish. (Yes in other languages). Anybody else has that problem?

September 3, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Lancet
Mod
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The Irish course unfortunately does not have microphone exercises at present - if these appear anywhere, it is by accident! I've passed this on to the Duo tech staff.

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CaolMcHugh

Gotten several microphone questions higher up on the learning tree, thought that was a sign stuff was getting serious. ❤❤❤❤❤❤. xD

September 8, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Lancet
Mod
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Which skills were these in, do you remember?

September 8, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CaolMcHugh

Can't remember, sorry. Although on the strengthen skills section (main page, no particular skill) an hour ago, I had a problem in a 'Type what you hear' question where a long sentence was spoken, only for the answer to be completely unrelated - 'An aghaidh'

I'll report them if I come across them again

September 8, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/CaolMcHugh

Another couple of things, I'm not sure if these are issues, but the 'Translate "Tree" ' question comes up on every practice session, and practice session questions seem to vary anywhere from 2 to 20

September 8, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/GypsyHeart1

The Rosetta Stone and Nemo do have a pronunciation lab. They're not expensive. I do think they're good enough. I got them in the Google play store

January 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/jairapetyan
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Do you mean the audio? Yes, for me the Irish voice is keeping silent. Missed opportunities. Btw, is that your vbf giving you hundreds of lingots for a question?

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Angeluzfun
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Nope. When I have to speak to the microphone, duo doesn't understand what I say. At all. And now I see the 100 lingots! Hva i alle dager??? How did I get that? I don't know, but thank you, whoever generous fellow language nerd!!! BTW, I had to google vbf. I found something terrible in Urban Dictionary, but I'm sure you didn't mean that. What do you mean with vbf?

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/AlexisLinguist
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I think she means "very best friend". ;) That was me, as you were my 700th follower. :D

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Angeluzfun
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Thank you very much! =D (for the lingots and the clarification)

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/countrylife4me

what gets me is that I have never even heard an irish word and when I started just today the first thing it threw at me was translate this sentence. Really?!!! and no sound. How am I supposed to learn this from here. I'll have to learn it somewhere else.

October 28, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/ataltane
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That's how you learn it. Point your mouse pointer at each word. It tells you what it means. Enter in what you think it means, learn from your mistake, if any, and next time you'll have a better change of knowing it.

February 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
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sounds like Chinese

September 3, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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I'm guessing you've never heard Chinese....

September 5, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/tonallyambiguous

i'm chinese and i can confirm that it did sound like chinese for the first second lol

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/George418878
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"Ta si" means "it/he/she is" in Chinese, too!

February 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/tonallyambiguous

ta shi, rather, but yes!

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Seax_Blade

Japanese maybe

December 18, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/tonallyambiguous

never. i speak japanese from young and this sounded nothing like it

May 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/-Zorua-
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Maybe a little, in terms of just the words, but Japanese is spoken totally differently from Irish.

August 11, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Mr.Dillinger
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Hey I didn't see anyone asking so does the letter s make a "shh" sound in Irish?

January 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ataltane
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Yes, when it's next to letter I or E. Otherwise it's like "s".

See my really long reply above to smoshea for all the gory details.

February 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/votorobo
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I too would really like to know a native person's input on how viable this example is. It does work in English as an answer to a "Who is ... ?" question. Does it in Irish too?

September 6, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/ataltane
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I'm not a native speaker, but as far as I know 'tá sé' on its own makes no sense. You need to fill it out:, e.g. 'tá sé ansin' -> 'he is here' or similar. If you just want to say 'he is' = 'he exists', you still need the dummy word 'ann': 'tá sé ann'.

It doesn't work as an answer to 'who is...' - that question and its answer require a copular construction.

April 26, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/MaryEllen246097
Plus
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ataltane: that makes so much sense! Thank you for enlightening us! :-) Because we have already been taught that Irish is phrasal and that many Irish phrases need another component to complete the phrase. Here are some example of Phrasals from the Irish tree: 1. (Is veigeatóir mé) – I am a vegetarian. 2. (Is liomsa é) – It is mine (It is or He is) 3. (is…muid) We are… 4. (is…iad) They are ... 5. (Tá uisce ag) an bportán – The crab has water. (has water the crab) 6. (Tá uisce ag) an gcailín - The girl has water. (has water the girl) 7. (Tá ...agam) I have … 8. (Tá…aige) He has ... 9. (Tá …aici) – She has ... 10. (Tá brón ar) an gcailín – The girl is sad -(Is sad) the girl 11. Tá mé – I am – not a phrasic? 12. Táim – I am (tauim) – not a phrasic?

April 26, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL
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Cé atá freagrach?

Tá sé agus tá sí

April 26, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/MaryEllen246097
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SatharnPHL: Oh, Ok, now I get it, you are giving us a scenario where this sentence would be valid on it's own. You said "Who is responsible? He is and she is. --- Cé atá freagrach? Tá sé agus tá sí

April 27, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/G0108

Very rare that you'll find a native Irish speaker on here.

December 26, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/bmcglenn

Why is "It is he and it is she" not correct?

September 9, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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Because that's a very different structure using the copular verb "is".

September 9, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/bmcglenn

Erm, could you simplify that a bit? Such as, what is a copular verb?

September 30, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/NiallT
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Not really. I could, but it would end up being a very long lesson. The important thing is that it's a different construction which you'll presumably learn later.

September 30, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/lioneln17

quiero aprender irlandés sin ingles, pero me conformo por ahora .

May 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/MaryEllen246097
Plus
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lioneln17: Si usted sabes poco inglés, usted puedes aprender irlandés con instrucciones inglés. Yo no puedo hablar español muy bien, perro guiero aprender catalán e necesario que yo apprender catalán con español instrucciones. Si sabes instrucciones en español tú puedes appendar irlandés con instrucciones en inglés tambien. :-)

April 27, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Zesul
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That's amazing! Except for the tones, "tá sí" means the same as Mandarin "Tā shì (她是)" in Mandarin.

January 22, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Fleet
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So "ta" and "is" are both "is"? I just saw "Is fear e" for "He is a man". Could you also say "Ta fear se"?

January 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Fleet
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Ah, nevermind, found the explanation on the tips page.

January 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/PepperGuy

ashay agus tushi

January 27, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Vittorio1235
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he is ......., she is .......... Duolingo, put the reply please.

February 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Vittorio1235
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when she says Tá sounds like toh

March 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ChristianMuise

Would another acceptable translation be "He is and so is she."?

August 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/toewsrules

it sounded like it said "ta she me shawn" I thought it switched to Portuguese for a second

January 14, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/LPRINGLE1

Is there any other good Irish apps besides Nemo rosetta stone and memrise

March 4, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/crazygamergal

I was confused because it said for translation there is which made no sense.

March 9, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Marley.Finnen

if you put your mouse on it translates to : he is and there is I don't see she anywhere

March 21, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/maddymozer

well it sound like freanch

June 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/MysteryBlokHed

Is this even a sentence?

August 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Cassidy574030

WAY too ling for me

September 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Renee1105

What happened here? I thought I was learning Irish not japanese

October 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Fabtastic2k17

OKAY... I learn irish in school so i know what the pronunciation is supposed to sound like.. The AGUS that she is saying ain't right..everything is wrong, i bet shedoesnt even speak it she is just reading! her accent isnt even irish!

October 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/FELIXCARNE2

this is really diffucult

October 24, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Grace392737

This is really confusing

November 22, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/TrinityCol9

he is and she is.

February 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Labreton1

What

March 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Mitsuki228364

:v

April 7, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/LucyWallace427

i thought it was swedish for a second

June 18, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/McCarthy828491

why so many accsents?????????

July 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Konim96
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Sounds more like Chinese to me. I study Japanese and this sounds nothing like it

January 11, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/kathleengemma

Where do you find the fada on a mobile?

July 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL
Mod
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Long-press on the vowel - hold the key down for about a second.

July 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/kathleengemma

Thank you very much

July 9, 2018
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