Translation:Ik hoop dat je eet.
Is "dat" required with "hopen"? In English, it is optional. "I hope that he comes" = "I hope he comes". Is it optional in Dutch, too?
Yes, you cannot say "Ik hoop jij eet" or "Ik hoop jij komt", in both examples it is "Ik hoop dat jij eet" and "Ik hoop dat jij komt"
I thought the second verb in a sentence had to be the full form: Ik hoop dat je eten
That has nothing to do with the number of verbs in a sentence. E.g.
- "Ik hoop dat jij doet waar jij goed in bent.
Three verbs and all conjugated accordingly to each respective subject.
- "Wij hopen dat hij vertelt waar jij naar school gaat.
You are probably confused with a sentence like:
- "Hij gaat slapen or "Ik kan zwemmen", which do use the infinitive (just like English)
Because in this context dat is acting as a subordinating conjunction (meaning that), and wheb die is used as a subordinating conjunction, it means who/which.
"Jou" is the form of "jij" that is used for direct or indirect objects. It is similar to the English "me" as opposed to "I".
In this sentence, you is the subject of the subclause "that you eat", since you are the one doing the eating. That's why you can't say "jou". It would be the same as saying in English: You hope that me eat, which is obviously wrong. Unless you're the Cookie Monster.
Oh gosh, I totally knew that too! Just wasn't thinking clearly, I guess. Thank you!
What makes it right if you're the cookie monster? But I did get a good laugh out of that.
dat (or any subordinating conjunction) does not cause inversion, but it alters word order by sending all of the verbs to the end of the subordinated clause.
What causes inversion is starting a sentence with something other than the subject (be it an adverb, an adverbial phrase or a subordinated clause), because Dutch is a V2 language (which means that in main clauses the verb must always be the second element -note that I used the word element and not word-, at least as long as it's a statement and not a question, when the verb becomes the first element).
Hope this helps!