I had a multiple choice question where I had to fill in the missing word. The sentence was, "Tá ??? sa chuisneoir". The choices were "phéitseoga", "phéitseog", "péitseoga", and "péitseog". I chose "péitseoga", to make the sentence read, "There are peaches in the fridge", but was marked wrong, because the answer was supposed to be singular, not plural.
Without having the desired English phrase in front of me, how am I supposed to know that the answer should have been singular rather than plural?
The tips say feminine nouns get lenited if they're in the nominative case, so if they're the subject of the sentence - isn't "peach" is in this case nominative? Or is that only after "an"? Plus, when I used the non lenited version in sentences where the word was clearly accusative, I was told it should be lenited - so now I'm really confused... can anyone explain?
The Tips say that feminine nouns are lenited after the singular definite article an in the nominative case.
You will find no reference to the accusative case because Irish effectively doesn't have one. The accusative always takes the same form as the nominative. (The one apparent difference between nominative and accusative in Irish is for the pronouns sé/é, sí/í and siad/iad, but that isn't really the case as é, í and iad are used in the nominative with the copula).
Are you asking why sometimes it's spelled "cuisneoir" or "chuisneoir" or "gcuisneoir"?
cuisneoir - "fridge"
i gcuisneoir - "in a fridge"
sa chuisneoir - "in the fridge"
That's because English is irregular. With a definite article, you say "The peach is in the fridge".
With an indefinite article, you say "There is a peach in the fridge".
Tá an phéitseog sa chuisneoir - "The peach is in the fridge"
"Tá péitseog sa chuisneoir* - "There is a peach in the fridge"
In this regard, Irish is quite straighforward and English is weird.
Why do some words get an extra 'h' or lose the 'h' as a second letter? What is the difference?
Example: I just learned the word 'phéitseog' as peach. In a couple sentences this spelling is right, but in this sentence 'Tá péitseog sa chuisneoir.' it has to be without an 'h'.
(I have seen this with multiple words, like bean-bhean, etc.
Why is this?
No, they don't. I also tried to translate it to dutch (my native language) in a attempt to understand what lenition means. But the dutch language doesnt add letters in this way. So naturally it didnt translate and left me clueless. The link you send made it easier, but its also confuses me, especially when they come up with the exceptions, after that whole list of where to add these letters.
This video is extremely helpfull. My dutch accent is not making my irish sound very good.
That's not the "literal" translation - sa is "in the".
Why do you have to put in all the extra words? Because English is weird, and "There is a peach in the fridge" is a more natural sentence in English than "peach is in the fridge", which sounds like someone called Peach is standing in a fridge.
They're not "extra". English grammar works differently than Irish grammar. Translation is not about blindly swapping out words. It's about taking something in one language and saying it appropriately in another language.