a, e, i, o, u are more or less similar in Irish and most languages in the world (Spanish, Italian, Japanese [transliterated]). The acute accents on the vowels (á, é, í, ó, ú) indicate that the vowels are long.
í, espacially, would be pronounced ‘ee’ by virtually anyone on Earth except an English speaker...
For most verbs, to ask a question you put "an" at the beginning of the sentence, but it causes some changes to the verb, so I think that will be in a later lesson. Here's an example anyway: Tuigim (tig'm) = I understand An dtuigeann tú? (uh dig'n too) Do you understand? There's a pattern, and it's really not complicated. :)
Yes, both answers are indeed correct :) Irish has a different form of "you" for singular and plural:
- Tá tú -> You are (singular, so you are addressing one person)
- Tá sibh -> You are (plural, so you are addressing more than one person. It can also be translated as "you all", "you guys", "y'all", "ye", etc. depending on your local dialect)
For both Connacht and Ulster Irish, a slender t sounds more like "ch" than "t" - by that standard both of the ts in this exercise are clearly broad.
Munster Irish doesn't tend to slenderize consonants to the same extent as Ulster does, so, for example, the initial t in teacht is quite different in Munster and Ulster, but the slender Munster t is still noticeably more slender than the t in tú in this exercise.
I used teacht as an example because it's a very common word that most people would be familiar with, but to get an idea what tú with a slender t would sound like, listen to tiús
There is no verb in Irish that is the direct translation of the English verb "have", but there absolutely is a colloquial way to say "you have". That way, is, as you say tá <object> agat, but it does not mean "<object> belongs to you".
tá <object> agat will be clearly be understood as "you have <object>" even though tá <object> ag an doras will clearly be understood as "there is an <object> at the door".
"<object> belongs to you" is another structure in English that doesn't have a direct translation - Is leatsa an <object> would be the usual translation in Irish.
Part of the complication lies in that there are two verbs.
http://www.verbix.com/webverbix/go.php?D1=30T1=t%C3%A1H1=130 Tá, which refers to the present condition of something: Tá mé ar meisce (I am drunk)
and https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/is#Irish (Look under related terms, Verbix' 'Go' button isn't responding) Is, which refers to an inherent state: Is bean mé (I am a woman)
I'm only vaguely aware of this myself so this might not be a great explanation. I think it's similar to the Spanish Ser and Estar.
Oh okay, thanks. I found this webpage where it explains this... www.irishgaelictranslator.com/articles/grammar/ta-and-is-the-to-be-verbs/ So what it says is that TÁ/BÍ is what in Castilian, Catalan, Portuguese and Italian is ESTAR/STARE and IS is what it's SER/ÉSSER/ESSERE. Since I'm a native catalan speaker it'll be easier for me...
The copula/An chopail "is" is used when you are using a noun/pronoun to describe or categorize noun/pronoun. Tá is used when you are using an adjective to describe a noun or a pronoun.
(It's a bit more complicated than that, but that's your starting point).
"He is a teacher" - Is múinteoir é
"He is bilingual" - Tá sé dátheangach