I read = léim; we read = léimid
Someone told me that people can't access the tips and notes from their phones. So here they are:
Caol le caol agus leathan le leathan
This is the golden rule of Irish spelling and it is important for conjugating verbs. It literally means "slender with slender and broad with broad", and it refers to vowels in a word. The slender vowels in Irish are e, é, and i, í, and the broad vowels are a, á, o, ó, and u, ú. The rule says that the vowels on either side of any consonant should match: they should both be slender, or both be broad.
To see if the root of a verb is broad or slender, look at the last vowel in the root. If the last vowel is broad you use the endings for broad verbs, and if it is slender you use the endings for slender verbs. For example, take the verbs dún and bris. The last vowel in dún is broad, so you would use broad endings when conjugating this verb. Similarly you would use slender endings when conjugating bris.
Let's start with the present habitual. This describes what one does on a regular basis, not what one is doing right now. Verbs in Irish are split into three main groups: the first conjugation, the second conjugation and the irregular verbs.
- The first conjugation
These verbs have only one syllable. In the present tense the ending is, for the most part, added directly onto the root of the verb. Examples are dún close, ól drink, bris break.
Here are the endings for the first conjugation:
Pronoun -Broad ending -Slender ending I -aim -im you (singular) -ann tú -eann tú he/it -ann sé -eann sé she/it -ann sí -eann sí we -aimid / -ann muid¹ -imid / -eann muid¹ you (plural) -ann sibh -eann sibh they -ann siad -eann siad
¹In present tense verbs, muid is often not used; it is incorporated into the verb that precedes it instead, to make what is known as the "synthetic form".
Examples: dúnaim I close dúnann sé he closes brisim I break briseann sé he breaks
- The second conjugation
These verbs have more than one syllable. Many second conjugation verbs end in -gh; when writing these in the present tense, the last syllable of the word is removed to get a root and the endings are then added to that root. Examples are ceannaigh buy, bailigh collect. The roots for these would be ceann-, bail-.
Other second conjugation verbs end in -il, -in, -is or -ir. To write these in the present tense the last syllable is removed except for the very last letter, and then the appropriate ending is added. Examples include inis tell, oscail open. The roots for these would be ins-, oscl-.
Here are the endings for the second conjugation:
Pronoun -Broad ending -Slender ending I -aím -ím you (singular) -aíonn tú -íonn tú he/it -aíonn sé -íonn sé she/it -aíonn sí -íonn sí we -aímid / -aíonn muid -ímid / -íonn muid you (plural) -aíonn sibh -íonn sibh they -aíonn siad -íonn siad
Examples: bailíonn tú you collect ceannaímid / ceannaíonn muid we buy insím I tell osclaíonn sibh you open
- Irregular verbs
The last group of verbs in Irish are the irregular verbs. There are only 11 of these. Some of them appear quite regular most of the time, but all of them have at least one tense in which they don't obey the standard rules. The irregular verbs are:
abair say beir bear/carry/bring bí be clois hear déan do/make feic see faigh get ith eat tabhair give tar come téigh go
There is no verb meaning to have in Irish. Instead the verb bí (be) is used, together with the preposition ag (at). Prepositions will be covered separately in more detail in later skills.
To express that you have something, you say that it is "at you" - implying that it is close by you, in your possession. For example, if you want to say I have a book, think of this as meaning A book is at me, or There is a book at me. The Irish for this is Tá leabhar agam.
Here is ag in its main forms:
Irish English ag at agam at me agat at you (singular) aige at him aici at her againn at us agaibh at you (plural) acu at them
Examples of bí + ag: Tá oráiste agam I have an orange Tá pláta acu They have a plate Tá cailín ag Pól Paul has a girl/girlfriend Tá an biachlár againn We have the menu
Here are some helpful sites:: http://angaelmagazine.com/pronunciation/vowels.htm http://www.abair.tcd.ie/ https://www.duolingo.com/comment/4277962