Why 'His personality IS changed' is not a valid answer? To me this phrase looks like simple present passive, not present perfect. Anyone? Thnx in advance.
Duo just doesn't seem to want to admit that "is changed" is a valid translation of "è cambiata".
1. It is perfectly good English.
2. Without any context setting a time frame for the sentence, there is nothing constraining anyone from translating it that way.
3. Past participles which are conjugated with essere have to agree with the subject, just like adjectives. In face, they are a lot closer to being adjectives than they are to being verbs.
4. Translating "is" as "has" is not necessary in many instances where the English idiom works either way. It may very well be that using "is" rather than "has" is a better translation which better transmits the meaning of the verb and sentence.
5. By refusing to accept "is" as an auxiliary in sentences like this, Duo is making English a poorer language, because it is missing out on a degree of nuance the use of "is + [past participle]" imparts.
6. "has changed" - changed what? Or into what. Conjugating with "to have" makes "to change" either transitive or reflexive. If transitive, then the sentence lacks a direct object. If reflexive, then "to have" is the wrong auxiliary, because he has changed himself (by what process?), and it is simpler and less ambiguous to simple say, "He is changed." In other words, when people remark "He has changed" and they mean "He is different form the way he was before", they are really saying "he is changed", and they are using the wrong words.
. For example, when you look at someone in the present moment and notice changes from the last time you saw him, you are observing the changes NOW, so what you are seeing is the fact that he IS changed now. It's a conclusion of logic to say that "he has changed", but you may not know when or why or how - and your conclusion that he has changed is based entirely on your current observation that he is changed.
Jeffrey: To pick up on your example, I believe most natives would say "he has changed", though I agree that 'he is changed' isn't incorrect. If one said "he's changed" then I suppose you could take the apostrophized verb for either 'is' or 'has' though I think most would assume it's short for "he has' rather than "he is" as when used to say e.g. 'he's sick'.
Most would say it - but that's in part because Americans are becoming so ignorant of their own language, it gives me pause, with a deep breath. A whole facet of nuance is being ground off by the purveyors of simplicity in our school system and in the culture as a whole.
That really wouldn't bother me so much, but I firmly believe that you can only think as big as your vocabulary - meaning not necessarily words, but the whole basket of words, ideas, concepts. The US is becoming an under-educated society which is incapable of considering big and creative ideas simply because it's people lack the vocabulary to understand them.
I'd hate to see Duo contribute to that, but it is, by refusing to accept valid English like "he is changed".
Two years on … I agree totally. Even publications that were the bastion of proper grammar are giving in to a dumbed down English language. And this from an engineer!
Because 'His personality is changed' is not proper english grammar. 'His personality has changed' is the correct answer for the present perfect form. If you would like to use "is" then 'His personality is changing' is acceptable, but not in this particular lesson. I understand that Duolingo has not always been consistent with regards to proper grammar and translating between italian and english but I believe in this instance they are correct. https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/words/s_is_has.htm
Jason, you're correct except for saying that "His personality is changing is acceptable" since it'd be the wrong tense: e' cambiata is past tense not present.
There is nothing wrong with doing that, except in Duo's limit scope. "Changed" here is both and adjective and a participle, depending on whether you conjugate it with "to have" or "to be."
In this lesson/ section, you have to remember to use "has" instead of "is", in all cases.
Technically, "is" is also incorrect in English...
As a native English speaker of "a certain age" I would use 'He has changed.' in a different sense than 'He is changed.' For example: if I had seen a person earlier in the day with slacks and a sweater, and now he is wearing shorts and a t-shirt, I might comment "He has changed." However, if a friend is behaving differently than I'm used to the comment would more likely be "He is changed." I agree with the person who said there is no context for judging whether this è should be is or has.
jan...your examples are interesting and I agree with you. I'm wondering though whether for the most part speakers who'd phrase both of your scenarios as "He's changed" could open the door so to speak for both interpretations, without those speakers really knowing or consciously thinking about which of the two they're actually saying.
how can it be his if it's cambiat"a" is this right or is this a mistake on duolingo's part?
It's right. ''La personalità'' is feminine, that's why ''cambiata'' takes an ''a''. It doesn't matter if we are talking about a boy or a girl, it's the personality that has changed.
Oh this is hard, but makes sense haha thank you very much for clearing that up for me.
Compound verbs conjugated with essere act like adjectives - they have to agree in number and gender with the subject of the sentence.
Compound verbs conjugated with avere have no such requirement in regard to the subject of the sentence - there is never any agreement with the subject.
The following may seem daunting, but don't freak out. As with all the other stuff, it gets more clear each time you come back to it. (One of the tricks to learning a foreign language is being comfortable with not knowing the answer.)
You will come across it in the future, so it won't seem unfamiliar to you then. It probably appears in this module somewhere. Perhaps read it for reference back later - copy and paste it into a document file you can save on your computer. (When I'm done writing this, I will do the same, so I can find it easily.)
If a compound verb is conjugated with avere (e.g., lui ha visto - "he has seen"), and it is preceded by a 3rd person direct object pronoun (he, she, it, them - lo,la,lo,lì,le ), then the past participle has to agree with gender and number of the pronoun. Examples:
Lui ha visto la ragazza? Sì, Lui l'ha vista.
Hai visto questo film? No, non l’ho visto.
Hai finito i compiti? Sì, li ho finiti.
Quando hai visto la signora? L’ho vista lunedì.
Dove hai messo le mele? Le ho messe nella scatola.
This is tricky for two reasons:
lo and la ("he, it, and she") are changed to l' in front of the avere verbs, so you often don't know just from the pronoun l' whether it's masculine or feminine. At least you know it's singular, because plurals lì and le are not changed when in front of any word beginning in a vowel.
It's 3rd person of the direct object that matters, not the person or gender or number of the subject and verb. The direct object pronoun has to be lo, la, lì or le in order to require agreement. And it doesn't matter which person, gender, or number the actual subject and verb are.
Even if the verb is 1st or 2nd person singular or plural (io, tu, noi, voi ), if the direct object is one of the four 3rd-person pronouns, then the participle has to agree. In the example about; le ho messe nella scatola - "I put them in the box." messe agrees with le, even though the subject and verb are 1st person singular. le is one of the 3rd person pronouns, and it appears before the verb.
For 1st and 2nd person direct object pronouns, agreement of the participle with the direct object is optional.
There is one really tricky point: Lei, the Formal You. It is conjugated with a 3rd person verb, but is supposedly 2nd person. I'm not certain exactly how to handle it, even with adjectives, because it looks feminine, but I don't know that I'd want to say to an Italian man, "Lei è alta". He might be very offended that I used a feminine adjective ending. I'm going to ask one of my Italian-speaking friends here about this and try to get back here with an answer.
Also, if there any typos and errors, I will correct them later.
What about "La sua personalità si è cambiata"? Is there any essersi in Italian?
I had the same question as erdnaoluap, namely why not reflexive. In an earlier sentence in this same exercise the sentence read: he has changed; the italian read: lui si è cambiato.
Yes, I found this interesting, too. It seems there is a distinction between a person changing (transitively) and an entity changing (intransitively).
There must be a third correct translation: Your personality changed (formal)
The "formal" you is used pretty much only in its own little section, and ignored everywhere else in Duolingo.
You're not the first to complain about it, but I don't think that the editors are going to change it. Too confusing. Also, if it were written (using the formal) it would be a capital letter S on "La Sua", I believe, but the program accepts capitals and lower case as equals.
It is not formal. The ending changes to reflect the gender of the subject, when verbs with essere are used.
I asked this question 11 months ago and still don't see a satisfactory explanation, namely why not reflexive: La sua personalità SI è cambiata. In an earlier sentence in this same exercise the sentence read: he has changed and the italian read: lui si è cambiato.
What changed is different. In "Lui si è combiato", the HE changed. In "La sua personalità è cambiata", the PERSONALITY changed. Personality is a what, not a who, and the reflexive is used with who not what. At least that's how I remember it. Maybe it isn't correct, but so far it has worked for me when deciding.
Krisbaudi: That should be correct too. You should definitely report it.
Some verbs which use "to have" as auxiliary in English use "to be" in Italian.
Why do they not use 'cambiato' in this case? I understand that 'personalità' is feminine, but I thought that in the present perfect, the 'o' only changed into an 'a' after 'lo/l'/etc'?
If I remember correctly, when you use essere as a helping verb there must be agreement in gender and number.
When essere is the auxiliary verb, the past participle must agree with the subject in gender and number. It's the same rule as for adjectives - the past participle is acting a lot like an adjective when essere is the auxiliary.
Jill...It's because 'essere' is being used intransitively, i.e., it's being used here without a direct object.
pattyvital91: I don't believe so. Cambiare uses essere if the verb's being used intransitively as here, avere if used transitively. I could be incorrect and there could be regional differences or even different usage based on what one's supposed to say and what's actually said, but I think that's correct.
Thanks for your answer, its just that I dont get it cuz in English is HER PERSONALITY HAS CHANGED and in Spanish it would be the same as in English SU PERSONALIDAD HA CAMBIADO.... very different from Italian T.T
patty...I can't comment on the spanish, but in english we only use 'have' in our compound past tenses. There is no other choice. We don't use 'to be' whereas languages like italian and german do.
That would work if cambiare were being used transitively, but here it is being used intransitively and so uses essere as the auxiliary verb.
I am unsure about this: è cambiata means has changed but when the bottle è aperto it is open. Does this mean I can use the is changed regarding her personality and still be correct? It makes no sense to say the bottle has opened.
Steve, Aprire is a transitive verb, so it's not going to ever use essere as an auxiliary when it's functioning as a verb. So if you see it used w/ essere, then you can be sure its past participle is no longer functioning as such, but rather as an adjective, as in your example: the bottle is open. Some verbs always use essere, so when translating their past tenses into English you have no choice but to translate them using 'have'. Sono andato > I have gone. Others like cambiare can use both avere and essere, depending on whether they're being used transitively (with a direct object) or intransitively (e.g. to show change), and cambiare is one of them: Ho cambiato le scarpe > I changed shoes but Il tempo e' cambiato > the weather has changed.
Thanks you so much for taking teh time and trouble to explain, it is much appreciated.
If "La sua personalita e cambiata" is "His personalty has changed," then how do you say "HER personality has changed"?
LoribethClark: Out of context it could mean: HIS/HER/or ITS personality has changed. Context is everything. An alternate way of saying it absent context would be: La personalità di lei è cambiata vs ...di lui...
Thank you. That's kind of what I thought. When your native language does not rely on gender, it is sometimes very confusing when learning Italian, which does rely heavily on gender. Unfortunately, in the Duolingo setting, context is often absent.
Both forms are correct. "His personality IS changed, or His personality HAS changed. We say "He IS changed" OR "He HAS CHANGED".
Could someone explain why the answer is his personality and not hers? I'm lost.
Cambiata will always be feminine here to match personalità. The his or her isn't the subject.
"He has changed personality" isn't standard English. The sentence simply means; "His personality has changed."