Perhaps closer to “globe” or “world” than “Earth”? Otherwise, a phrase like an chruinne dhomhanda would seem somewhat redundant.
Amhlaoibh Ua Súilleabháin has the planet Earth marked out as "An chruinne" in his 1828 diary. Similarly Planet Earth is marked as "An chruinne" in Slighe an eolais by Cormac Ó Cadhlaigh (1926). It has the meaning of "globe" as well.
For me "an saol" or "an domhan" is closer to world.
An domhan can also be used for planet Earth.
Are the other planets mentioned by name in those sources? Is it traditional for planet names to be in lower case? In isolation, it seems as though “The world” would be a plausible translation for An chruinne in those instances.
By the why, native speakers also used "An Talamh" to refer to Earth astronomically.
In "An chruinne dhomhanda", domhanda would indeed read as "terrestrial". That's a poetic/literary phrase, usually used to complete meters. It would "The terrestrial sphere/orb"
Cruinne also means a sphere/orb.
An Talamh = The ground, very rarely: Earth
An Saol = The world, but particularly the human world, as in "The world was shocked to learn that market prices had fallen globally"
An domhan = The world, usually as in the surface of the Earth, as in "Across the world, in all parts of the world". All of terrestrial geography if you will. Sometimes used for Earth, under influence from English.
Cruinne = A globe, orb or sphere. Also the most common native word for Earth. (It and Talamh are really the only two pre-1900). Also: The universe
Thank you again for the explanations! I’d noticed talamh in Bedel’s translation of Genesis 1:1, but I wasn’t sure if that was more of a literary/poetic usage, or just a typical usage for the 17th century.
As for upper or lower case that varies. Amhlaoibh has IOPATAR in one place and Iopatar in another. He tends to use An chruinne and Cruinne, CRUINNE for Earth.
This would have varied especially since many cló gaelach fonts have no distinction.
In Amhlaoibh's 30th May 1829 entry he draws a diagram of Jupiter and the Earth in orbit around the sun. He gives the names Iopatar for Jupiter and Cruinne for Earth.
Elsewhere in the diary he has An chruinne for the Earth, again in a celestial mechanics context.
Thank you for the clarification!
Given that an domhan is closer to “world” for you, how would you prefer to translate an chruinne dhomhanda into English? Would domhanda come out as something like “terrestrial”, given the non-planetary meanings of “worldly”?
The simple rule of thumb is that the "n" in "an" is always pronounced, except by people whose dialect sometimes skips over it. If you have to ask, you should pronounce it - leaving it out won't make your Irish sound any more natural, and by the time your Irish does sound more natural, you may find yourself skipping over it anyway.