Here are some examples of when you would use an úrú (eclipse) for a noun beginning with c. You will learn these as you progress.
- ar an gcailín (on the girl)
- ag an gcailín (at the girl)
- leis an gcailín (with the girl)
- roimh an gcailín (before/in front of the girl)
- ár gcailín (our girl)
- bhur gcailín (your pl. girl)
- a gcailín (their girl)
tips + notes are very helpful here! thanks! I c/p~ed it and printed it out, too much to remember all at once!
what puzzles me here in this sentence is the (only implied) subject (in the "-im" ending). first off I did not pay attention to that and thought that "an gcailín" must be the subject (turning the whole sentence around, like it sometimes happens in italian) - but then there would be no need for eclipsis, right? only the "roimh an" demands the eclipsis, or am I mistaken?
just "the girl" would have to be "an chailín", calling for lenition, right? puzzled
I understand that the concept of eclipsis/lenition is a complex one and probably very hard to teach at any stage of the course, but still - somehow it makes me feel as if I had skipped five lessons somewhere and jumped from lesson 5 to lesson 10, judging from the difficulty of food/animals/plurals compared with these two chapters.
thanks after all for the Irish course! I think it's great being able to learn such an "old" language here on DL! :)
You are correct. The eclipse is because of roimh an. In Ulster Irish, it would be lenition. So both riomh an chailín and riomh an gcailín are accepted, thought you should stick with one.
Also, it would not be an chailín, but an cailín. Cailín is a masculine noun, becuase of the ín diminutive ending (all diminutives are masculine) and it comes from Caile + ín (little maid)
I, too, was/am completely baffled by this. When I first learned eclipses and lenition, I didn't understand any of it, but I got through it and kept moving ahead. Now I have come back to review and it makes more sense albeit, still very challenging. Some have suggested writing out the rules found in tips¬es to help retain the information. It sounds like a good idea to me.
That is another peculiarity of the Irish language, which you will stumble over in the "numbers" chapter:
In almost all situations, you use the singular version of the noun and not the plural version when counting with numbers. .... (for example, to count dogs you use the singular madra instead of the plural madraí).
this sentence can be confusing. It could be: I eat before the girl eats. As in: I ate my meal, before she began eating her meal. Or... It could mean, I ate my meal in front of her. As in: She sat and watched, as I ate my meal. As you can see, there is a big difference between these two interpretations. How do we know which meaning is correct? Whichever one is correct, how do we say the other one?
It's because in Irish (certain dialects), there is urú, or eclipsis. In essence, certain words have a new letter put in front. There's a good breakdown here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/10981166
In the first link I posted, there is a table that breaks down which letter goes in front of which letter. Luckily it's consistent, and once you remember the rules, you're good to go.
Specifically the thread says: > As you can see, only the letters B, C, D, F, G, P and T can be eclipsed and they are eclipsed with m, g, n, bh, n, b and d, respectively.
And there are four cases where eclipsis is used:
- After possessive adjectives
- After numbers seven - ten
- After prepositions + the definite article
- After certain other words
Your best bet is to read the Duolingo thread because it goes into way more detail and gives concrete examples for you to study. Interestingly enough, other languages will do similar changes based on a preceding word. Japanese has a property called "rendaku" which means certain letters change based on the proceeding word/phoneme. For example, person is "hito" and to say people you double it (neat, right?) except rendaku changes the second h to a b: hitobito. Another example is in Japanese a "kitsune" is a fox, but if you mean a female fox, it becomes "megitsune" because female (me) before fox (kitsune) changes the k to a g. (And I'm writing all of this about Japanese as a rank amateur. I'm sure I'm glossing over some important details, just sharing as an example. Please don't beat up on me, anybody, if I'm wrong. :-) )
Anyway, enough digression. Go read the duolingo thread. It's going to be your best help.
(we're out of reply levels) I majored in Spanish. I was wanting to add another language and was debating between understanding anime and reading Dostoevsky untranslated. Due to weather, many finals were rescheduled that year and my Spanish final shared a room with the Russian 201. The listening audio annoyed me so much I chose Japanese. I have to say I didn't learn as much as I should have because both teachers went easy on our section. I truly can't wait for the Japanese to launch on Duolingo. I have become rusty with katakana. (after attempting the Russian on Duolingo I think I made the right choice. It turns out I'm more dyslexic in Russian than English)
The spelling, apart from the use of eclipse instead of lenition here, shouldn't be any different at all; they're all based on the standard (unless, of course, you were learning to right Donegal Irish as it's spoken; in which case, fair play to the teacher). As for pronunciation, it's likely that you just haven't been exposed to that much Irish outside of Donegal. Practice and exposure will help fix that.
roimh isn't used before a verb (Sula n-imí tú - "before you leave").
roimh can mean "before" both in term of position and time:
nigh do lámha roimh an dinnéar - "wash your hands before dinner"
nigh do lámha sula n-itheann tú do dhinnéar - "wash your hands before you eat your dinner"
itheann tú do dhinnéar roimh an teilifís - "you eat your dinner in front of the televsion"
It's called eclipsis or urú (a form of "initial mutation"). In certain dialects and after certain words, certain consonants have another consonant written in front of the word. Both letters are written, but only the first one (the new one) is prionounced, so if I live in Paris (Páras), I have to say that I live i bPáras ("ih bahruhss") because i (in) causes the next letter to be eclipsed. It's not random and doesn't happen to all consonants, just these: b -- mb "mmm" c -- gc "g@ like good d -- nd "n" f -- bhf "w" or "v" depending on the dialect and the next vowel. I say "w" in front of a, o, u and "v" in front of "i" and "e" g -- ng It's kind of like the n with a tilde like in senor p -- bp "b" like boy t -- dt "d" like dog Consonants get an n- Remember, you will say the first consonant only, and if the original word was capitalized, it stays capitalized: i mBoston ("ih moston")
Some times you will use this are after i meaning in and (in the south, I think) after things like on the and before the.
Oh thanks for taking the time to explain. I know I should be looking at the web version instead of the app version for the tips and hints, but the app version is just more convenient. Btw, this is similar to my native language, except it happens with prefixes, and we write the new consonant and omit the original.