"Esse remédio tem algum componente mais forte?"
Translation:Does this medicine have any stronger component?
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"Este" an "esse" both mean "this", and "aquele" means "that". There are specific rules for when you use "este" o "esse". It's a pain in the ass, and many brazillian students suffer with it too haha
For example, when talking about an object, if it is close to the person speaking, you use "esse". If it's close to the listener, you use "este".
Althought "este" is not used very much in spoken language, because "esse" just sounds better.
Imagine the person is allergic to a kind of substance presented on a medicine... or any substance that can cause any side effect once there is a harmful (strong) component on it... So, tha person may ask that in order to avoid problems or he/she wants a medicine which causes a deeper effect. (for example: a medicine for depression which causes the person to sleep for a long period of time...)
P., the sentence just doesn't make sense in any language, in that no one ever would ask this question. It's vague, and it's irrelevant.
For example, if I'm prescribed a medication that has two components, like acetaminophen and codeine, what does "stronger" even mean? With all due respect, your interpretation is not at all what the sentence says. That question would be, "Does this medicine have any strong side-effects?" This is a case of DL presenting a nonsensical sentence for an exercise.