Looking at Old English cognates will make German make more sense:
Ic/I, mec/me (direct), mîn/my/mine, mê/me (indirect) = Ich, mich, mein, mir.
Þû/thou, þec/thee (direct), þîn/thy/thine, þê/thee (indirect) = du, dich, dein, dir.
Wê/we, ûs/us (direct), ûre/our, ûs/us (indirect) = wir, uns, unser, uns.
Gê/ye, êowic/you (direct), êower/your, êow/you (indirect) = ihr, euch, euer, euch.
Note that while English loses the direct forms and merges it with the indirect forms for both (me, thee, us, you), German normally keeps both, but does appear to merge them in the plurals. However you can see that the Old English 'êowic' (you, direct) is cognate with 'euch'.
"euch" is the accusative form of "ihr" , the nominative form of plural informal or familiar "you". euch never means her (I reported this for you.), but "sie" becomes "ihr" in the dative form. ( not the genitive form but the possessive form see TrioLinguist below)
Here is a site that lists all the forms for each case for all the pronouns.
"sie" becomes "ihr" in the dative form and genitive form.
You're right about the dative being ihr, but it's the possessive form that's also ihr (e.g. das ist ihr Hund), not the genitive pronoun which is ihrer, which is only used in the event of a genitive object, for example:
- Poseidon erbarmte sich ihrer - Poseidon had mercy on her
- Du bist ihrer nicht würdig. - You're not worthy of her
Note that genitive pronouns are rare because genitive objects are rare, since genitive is mainly used after prepositions and to show relation between nouns nowadays. They are only commonly found in poetry, but also occasionally in literature and formal writing.
Thank you, yes, ihr is the possessive form for sie. Canoonet has better information: http://www.canoo.net/inflection/sie:Pron:Personal:3rd:SG:F http://www.canoo.net/inflection/ihr:Pron:Personal:2nd:PL http://www.canoo.net/inflection/sie:Pron:Personal:3rd:PL
To top it off, as a possessive pronoun "ihr" has many forms including attributive forms which would be in front of a noun as a possessive adjective: http://www.canoo.net/inflection/ihr:Pron:Poss:3rd:F:SG
Yes, exactly, du is the one that does the liking and dich is the one being liked.
Both statements and questions can make use of grammatical cases. It depends on the question word to be used if the statement would be turned into a question:
- Wer? - Nominative
- Wessen? - Genitive
- Wem? - Dative
- Wen? - Accusative
The sentence "Ich mag euch." could be transformed into a question as "Wer mag wen?". Subject (who?) likes the object (whom?).
Please read some grammar documentation to learn more about grammatical cases:
Because that's nominative, it's like how you can't say I like he in English, you have to use the accusative form, which is him. Same concept here – you need to use the accusative form of ihr which is euch.
Du/dich would be fine but remember that refers to one person, while ihr/euch is plural.
I knew what was meant, but since English doesn't really have a fully accepted plural version of "you", I put "y'all", which is counted as correct. In my dialect of English I'd normally put "You'ns" (You ones), but choose not to put that here as it's less recognized than "Y'all", which was accepted.
This table will definitely help :) http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/German/Grammar/Pronouns
There are 4 cases (Fälle) in German language:
- Nominativ - Wer-Fall
- Genitiv - Wessen-Fall
- Dativ - Wem-Fall
- Akkusativ - Wen-Fall
The different cases have the task to make the different parts of the sentence distinguishable, so you are able to reorder them.
Read more about cases here:
I like pada's answer. Though to be more specific the nominative case refers to the subject. So in the sentence I ate the apple "I" is the subject and takes the nominative case. "Apple" is the direct object so it take the accusative case. The direct object is the thing being acted on by the verb, in this case the Apple being eaten.
In addition in German other grammatical constructs take different cases. As pada mentioned, some of the question words take specific cases which I'm sure this app will refer to in future lessons.
In English we have one word "you", but we used to have a singular form "thou" with the object form "thee" and we are used to the difference between "I", "me" and "We" and "us". "du" is the singular informal form of "you" used as a subject or predicate nominative. "ihr" is the plural informal form of "you" used as a subject or predicate nominative. These are said to be in the Nominative case. "dich" (singular informal "you") and "euch" (plural informal "you") are in the Accusative case which are used for direct objects and after certain prepositions that require the Accusative case as well as after "Two-Way Prepositions" when there is motion involved. "I am going into the Church." would take Accusative case, while "I am in the Church" would require the noun to be in Dative case which will be covered later. There is also a set of formal forms of "you" in German, but luckily the Nominative and the Accusative are both Sie.