Why does lenition occur here? Maybe I'm missing something but it doesn't seem to fall under any of the situations in which lenition occurs....
Singular feminine nouns cause lenition of the following adjective. Léine is feminine singular.
there shouldn't be lenition here, it's the beta's mistake. "geal" would only lenited if there was an article before "léine". you're not missing a thing :)
Because a literal translation of an indefinite word doesn’t require an indefinite article in English, e.g. as a headword in an English dictionary.
@andyroo93 I'd already covered that. If you need quotes around it, it doesn't count because it's outside normal grammar. "shirt" is just short for "The word 'shirt'".
I'd still like an example where you would use "bright shirt" without a determiner, and without referring to its meaning (i.e. as a translation or a dictionary entry).
OK! Let me start using your rule. "Because literal translation of indefinite word doesn't require indefinite article in English, e.g. as headword in English dictionary."
If that sentence were a literal translation of an indefinite word, then that would be a fine counterexample.
But I don't talk like a dictionary! If someone says "What are you wearing?" I won't respond by saying "Shirt" or "Bright shirt" (unless I'm about to drop from exhaustion). I'd say "A shirt" or "A bright shirt". Can you give me any examples where you'd use a countable noun in English without a determiner (apart from saying "the word 'shirt'" or similar)?
An example is when someone asks you what 'léine' means in English and you reply, 'shirt'.
OK! Thanks for that! I think my point has now been proven that in everyday usage, a determiner is needed. It's only dropped in dictionaries or headlines (instructions can follow the same rules as headlines). You would never use it this way in formal writing or casual speech.
It wouldn’t be used that way in formal writing (excepting dictionaries ;*) ), but it could be used that way in casual speech — e.g. if you meet a friend and you’re uncharacteristically wearing a bright shirt, your friend might greet you by saying “Whoa — bright shirt!”.
Why isn't it "the bright shirt" then "a bright shirt" someone answer my question pls thnx
There's no definite article ("the"/"an"). EDIT: That's the Irish definite article, which just happens to be almost identical to the English indefinite article...
Well, yellow is a bright color. Wonder if there is an Indo-European linguistic connection : )
Dutch geel has a common Proto-Indo-European root with Irish glas ; that root word meant “green, yellow”. Irish geal comes from a different Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to shine”.
English uses one word for two very different qualities - Irish uses two different words. When people refer to "a light shirt" is a shirt, they mean one that isn't heavy - léine éadrom.
Because translation isn't a mechanical word for word exercise (if it was we would have had reliable machine translation decades ago).
You weren't asked to translate the word geal, you were asked to translate the phrase léine gheal, and in that context, "light" is a misleading translation, because English uses the word "light" for two very different concepts, and the default understanding of most English speakers when the read "a light shirt" is "not heavy", rather than "bright".
As said already by others, in English, a light 'shirt' or any other piece of clothing generally refers to its weight/fabric etc.
Even considering it to be a 'light-coloured' shirt doesn't accurately describe 'bright' or 'geal'.
There is always light during the day, but it isn't always bright during the day.
When clothing is referred to as 'bright', it is being highlighted that it isn't dull. This could relate to both its colour and design.
There can also be a significant difference between something which is 'light-coloured' and 'bright-coloured'. Light colours are often muted or dull, while bright colours are the opposite.
Buy paint, and you'll see the different between 'light yellow' and 'bright yellow'.
Therefore, I think it makes sense that light isn't considered correct. The sun always shines light, it doesn't always shine bright.
Thanks - this was not clear from the lessons so far or I simply missed it. I had also never heard of the NEID so that pointer alone is worth another "Thanks!"
So is geal right or should it actually be gheal? Also, is her pronunciation right? I heard it as a fricative rather than a y-sound, but maybe I heard it wrong. I think the IPA for that fricative thing I heard is that j-looking thing. I just want to clarify this. People don't seem to have much confidence in her pronunciations.
See toOliya‘s comment above for the answer to your first question — but note that singular feminine nouns in the genitive case do not lenite their attributive adjectives.
An initial slender gh (as in gheal ) sounds like an English Y (i.e. IPA /j/). (I’m doing this course without the audio, so perhaps someone else will address your specific question on her pronunciation.)
EDIT: The pronunciation of gheal in the new recording is correct.
Why isn't it a light shirt? Thinking of wearing thinner clothing in the summer.
Because the Irish for "light" meaning "not heavy" is éadrom. Geal means "bright"
"it's light as a feather" - tá sé chomh héadrom le cleite
"a lightweight fabric" - éadach éadrom
"the moon was bright enough to read by" - bhí an ghealach sách geal go bhféadfá léamh
I have a comment on the pronunciation of "gheal." Sounds a lot like English "yowl" rather than having a short "a" (like in apple) vowel sound. Given what I think I know about Irish pronunciation, I was expecting that "ea" would sound more like that short "a" in apple.
I'm surprised that you hear a sound like "yowl" in this exercise - it definitely sounds more like the "a" in apple to me.
The unrelated word geall does rhyme with "yowl" in Munster (especially in the phrase mar gheall).
Thanks for your reply. Good to get validation that "ea" in "gheal" is pronounced like English short a in apple, regardless of artifact of recording and how it came across to me (I did listen several times). Also appreciate the info about "gheall" and how it is pronounced in Munster. Cheers!
does "bright" have a color connotation in Irish that I'm not picking up on? As an American, I cannot imagine ever describing a garment this way unless it had lights attached to it.
Fellow American, a "bright shirt" would indicate to me that it's garishly flashy colored, like neon.
Not Irish, but in Australia if we say something is 'bright', we usually mean the colour is not a pastel colour. We would also say a colour could be 'dull' if it isn't bright.
E.g. The highlighter had a bright green colour. But her grey shirt was very dull.
I´m surprised to hear that about American English! In Irish and UK English bright means up the colour spectrum towards white. So pink, yellow, orange, light blue, cream are all "bright" colours.
The opposite is a "dark" colour: obviously black, brown, dark grey, dark blue, dark red, dark green, purple etc.
The contrast in US English would be “bright” vs. “dull” or “muted”, and “light” vs. “dark”. If you’re familiar with the Munsell color system, which categorizes colors into three dimensions — hue, chroma, and value — a color with a high chroma (regardless of its value) would be called “bright” here, and a color with a high value (regardless of its chroma) would be called “light” here.
Agreed with Huffdogg. We would say a pastel shirt, light shirt, or even more likely, a "light-colored" shirt, to distinguish from one of light weight. We'd rarely use "bright" as a color description on its own, unless the shirt were virtually neon, and then it would be emphasized to indicate "loudness" of color, as is "That is certainly a BRIGHT shirt" of a fuschia, lime, and electric blue print, which would certainly not be considered pastel!
In UK English, it's quite normal to comment "Ooh, that's a bright outfit she's wearing" if someone was wearing say, a lot of orange or highlighter-pink. Us English people are sort of... soft, if that makes sense. Likewise, if someone was wearing all black, we might say "That's a dark outfit he's wearing."
As a native English speaker and American, I have to disagree with you. I am not disputing your own experience - if you have never heard people refer to bright colored objects, then you haven't - but I sure have.