Duolingo is the most popular way to learn languages in the world. Best of all, it's 100% free!

"Léine gheal."

Translation:A bright shirt.

4 years ago

65 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Mungome
Mungome
  • 16
  • 12
  • 11
  • 10
  • 9
  • 7
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

Why this one needs an article? "bright shirt" was marked wrong.

4 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

It’s been fixed to no longer require an indefinite article.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

Why doesn't this require an indefinite article?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

Because a literal translation of an indefinite word doesn’t require an indefinite article in English, e.g. as a headword in an English dictionary.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

@andyroo93 I'd already covered that. If you need quotes around it, it doesn't count because it's outside normal grammar. "shirt" is just short for "The word 'shirt'".

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

OK! Let me start using your rule. "Because literal translation of indefinite word doesn't require indefinite article in English, e.g. as headword in English dictionary."

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

If that sentence were a literal translation of an indefinite word, then that would be a fine counterexample.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

I'd still like an example where you would use "bright shirt" without a determiner, and without referring to its meaning (i.e. as a translation or a dictionary entry).

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

In a set of instructions: “Remove bright shirt from packaging.”

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

OK! Thanks for that! I think my point has now been proven that in everyday usage, a determiner is needed. It's only dropped in dictionaries or headlines (instructions can follow the same rules as headlines). You would never use it this way in formal writing or casual speech.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

It wouldn’t be used that way in formal writing (excepting dictionaries ;*) ), but it could be used that way in casual speech — e.g. if you meet a friend and you’re uncharacteristically wearing a bright shirt, your friend might greet you by saying “Whoa — bright shirt!”.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CJ.Dennis
CJ.Dennis
  • 25
  • 17
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14

But I don't talk like a dictionary! If someone says "What are you wearing?" I won't respond by saying "Shirt" or "Bright shirt" (unless I'm about to drop from exhaustion). I'd say "A shirt" or "A bright shirt". Can you give me any examples where you'd use a countable noun in English without a determiner (apart from saying "the word 'shirt'" or similar)?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

“I drink beverages.”

EDIT: Updated my example to accommodate CJ.Dennis’ unnoted modification to his comment after having written my first example.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/andyroo93
andyroo93
  • 24
  • 16
  • 7
  • 7
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

An example is when someone asks you what 'léine' means in English and you reply, 'shirt'.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SkyDragonp

Why isn't it "the bright shirt" then "a bright shirt" someone answer my question pls thnx

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CHarrell13
CHarrell13
  • 21
  • 20
  • 15
  • 14
  • 11
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

There's no definite article ("the"/"an"). EDIT: That's the Irish definite article, which just happens to be almost identical to the English indefinite article...

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Klaheen

Why does lenition occur here? Maybe I'm missing something but it doesn't seem to fall under any of the situations in which lenition occurs....

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/toOliya
toOliya
  • 14
  • 13
  • 13
  • 11
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4

Singular feminine nouns cause lenition of the following adjective. Léine is feminine singular.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/teangasabhosca

there shouldn't be lenition here, it's the beta's mistake. "geal" would only lenited if there was an article before "léine". you're not missing a thing :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

No, this lenition is correct — see toOliya’s comment. (But note that singular feminine nouns in the genitive case do not lenite their attributive adjectives.)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TreasaWilson

The first time geal appeared i checked and it said bright or light, but when I translated this as a light shirt I got an incorrect. It has to be a bright shirt. Doesn't make sense.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Knocksedan

English uses one word for two very different qualities - Irish uses two different words. When people refer to "a light shirt" is a shirt, they mean one that isn't heavy - léine éadrom.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TreasaWilson

It could also mean light in colour as opposed to dark (as in a dark suit).

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Knocksedan

It could. But it doesn't - that's a "light-coloured suit".

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TreasaWilson

That was just an example. Any way the point is, why does duolingo say it means either bright or light as alternatives, then say one of them is wrong the next time the word appears?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Knocksedan

Because translation isn't a mechanical word for word exercise (if it was we would have had reliable machine translation decades ago).

You weren't asked to translate the word geal, you were asked to translate the phrase léine gheal, and in that context, "light" is a misleading translation, because English uses the word "light" for two very different concepts, and the default understanding of most English speakers when the read "a light shirt" is "not heavy", rather than "bright".

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rev._mother

Knocksedan, 'light' was a hint for 'geal' and it was accepted for a previous exercise for 'geal' . Just because light has more than one meaning doesn't mean it's an invalid answer. It is arbitrarily rejected for this exercise and should be corrected.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Thinker.ie
Thinker.ie
  • 14
  • 10
  • 8
  • 6
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 37

As said already by others, in English, a light 'shirt' or any other piece of clothing generally refers to its weight/fabric etc.

Even considering it to be a 'light-coloured' shirt doesn't accurately describe 'bright' or 'geal'.

There is always light during the day, but it isn't always bright during the day.

When clothing is referred to as 'bright', it is being highlighted that it isn't dull. This could relate to both its colour and design.

There can also be a significant difference between something which is 'light-coloured' and 'bright-coloured'. Light colours are often muted or dull, while bright colours are the opposite.

Buy paint, and you'll see the different between 'light yellow' and 'bright yellow'.

Therefore, I think it makes sense that light isn't considered correct. The sun always shines light, it doesn't always shine bright.

1 month ago

https://www.duolingo.com/silvith

a word like geal in dutch, geel, means yellow. So close. So confusing :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/I2cGAc67
I2cGAc67
  • 13
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7

Well, yellow is a bright color. Wonder if there is an Indo-European linguistic connection : )

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/david.r.linn
david.r.linn
  • 19
  • 16
  • 16
  • 13
  • 11
  • 11
  • 11
  • 553

Why is 'a light shirt' wrong?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

The NEID indicates that geal as an attributive adjective would not be used to mean “light” in the sense of “pale-colored”. However, geal- can be used as part of a compound word to indicate such a color, e.g. gealbhuí for “light yellow”.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/david.r.linn
david.r.linn
  • 19
  • 16
  • 16
  • 13
  • 11
  • 11
  • 11
  • 553

Thanks - this was not clear from the lessons so far or I simply missed it. I had also never heard of the NEID so that pointer alone is worth another "Thanks!"

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rev._mother

It isn't. It should be accepted. "Light" is used in a previous hint. White wine is fíon geal, not fíon gealbhui.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

Unless you're now arguing that geal should be translated as "white", you are arguing against yourself - you've just demonstrated that the correct translation of geal depends on context.

For native English speakers "a light shirt" and "light clothing" generally is clothing that is not heavy. You can wear a "light jacket" that is black, and you can wear a "light shirt" that is navy blue. That navy blue "light shirt" will absolutely not be a léine geal, because léine geal doesn't mean a "light shirt". It can mean a "light-coloured shirt", including a white shirt.

4 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rev._mother

You’re just being argumentative. Of course context matters, because of the arbitrariness of naming from language to language or even between two dialects like British and American. Ideally, “light shirt” should be accepted. NEID not withstanding, a compound word such “gealbhui” is not necessarily required, e.g. fíon geal , craiceann geal, conveying a light color. The fact that English uses the word “white” in these instances is irrelevant. We don’t define white as the color of white wine!

For native English speakers “a light shirt” and “light clothing” generally is clothing that is not heavy.

Since when? Sources? I would say, depends on the context. “Light shirt” would be a perfectly good translation for this exercise, perhaps the most obvious one for the majority of English speakers.

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/light

Definitions for two different adjectives - the first to do with "bright" and "well-lighted", the second to do with weight. The second definition includes "of less than the usual or average weight: light clothing" as an example.

If you're actually interested in learning Irish, then the Irish for "a light shirt" is léine éadrom. If you just want to rack up points on Duolingo, feel free to keep on claiming that "a bright shirt" and "a light shirt" are the same thing.

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rev._mother

Your reference also defines light as

pale, whitish, or not deep or dark in color: a light blue

What exactly are you trying to argue here? That the adjective light doesn’t mean “pale, whitish, not dark in color”? Ridiculous. Or that geal is never used in this sense and only means “luminous”? Also nonsense. Lots of examples of this and easy to find.

I am actually interested in learning Irish, which makes it disheartening to see you, an accomplished speaker, argueing minutae, semantics, on so many posts.

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

"light" in "a light blue shirt" is modifying "blue", it is not modifying "shirt". You can have a "heavy light-blue shirt".

By the way, feel free to ignore this post. I'm not posting it for your benefit, I'm posting it for the benefit of other learners who might be confused by your incorrect interpretation of this exercise.

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/NancyAnn11

Why isn't it a light shirt? Thinking of wearing thinner clothing in the summer.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Knocksedan

Because the Irish for "light" meaning "not heavy" is éadrom. Geal means "bright"

"it's light as a feather" - tá sé chomh héadrom le cleite
"a lightweight fabric" - éadach éadrom
"the moon was bright enough to read by" - bhí an ghealach sách geal go bhféadfá léamh

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

The FGB shows éadrom being used as an adverb with colors,

éadrom glas, éadrom gorm, light green, light blue.

but it isn’t used by itself as an adjective to mean “pale-colored”.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/WilliamIre4

Why does geal need an lenition so its gheal?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Knocksedan

Because léine is a feminine noun, and "attributive adjectives agree with the noun in case, number and gender", so geal is lenited so that it agrees in gender with the léine.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/bbrunetiere

bright ideas, bright uniforms...

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/andyroo93
andyroo93
  • 24
  • 16
  • 7
  • 7
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2

So is geal right or should it actually be gheal? Also, is her pronunciation right? I heard it as a fricative rather than a y-sound, but maybe I heard it wrong. I think the IPA for that fricative thing I heard is that j-looking thing. I just want to clarify this. People don't seem to have much confidence in her pronunciations.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

See toOliya‘s comment above for the answer to your first question. An initial slender gh (as in gheal ) sounds like an English Y (i.e. IPA /j/). (I’m doing this course without the audio, so perhaps someone else will address your specific question on her pronunciation.)

EDIT: The pronunciation of gheal in the new recording is correct.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Huffdogg

does "bright" have a color connotation in Irish that I'm not picking up on? As an American, I cannot imagine ever describing a garment this way unless it had lights attached to it.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/conor.raff
conor.raff
  • 13
  • 12
  • 11
  • 9
  • 7
  • 7
  • 7
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3

I´m surprised to hear that about American English! In Irish and UK English bright means up the colour spectrum towards white. So pink, yellow, orange, light blue, cream are all "bright" colours.

The opposite is a "dark" colour: obviously black, brown, dark grey, dark blue, dark red, dark green, purple etc.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mcdermottc1

Agreed with Huffdogg. We would say a pastel shirt, light shirt, or even more likely, a "light-colored" shirt, to distinguish from one of light weight. We'd rarely use "bright" as a color description on its own, unless the shirt were virtually neon, and then it would be emphasized to indicate "loudness" of color, as is "That is certainly a BRIGHT shirt" of a fuschia, lime, and electric blue print, which would certainly not be considered pastel!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/savandwich
savandwich
  • 15
  • 12
  • 10
  • 9
  • 7

In UK English, it's quite normal to comment "Ooh, that's a bright outfit she's wearing" if someone was wearing say, a lot of orange or highlighter-pink. Us English people are sort of... soft, if that makes sense. Likewise, if someone was wearing all black, we might say "That's a dark outfit he's wearing."

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1485

The contrast in US English would be “bright” vs. “dull” or “muted”, and “light” vs. “dark”. If you’re familiar with the Munsell color system, which categorizes colors into three dimensions — hue, chroma, and value — a color with a high chroma (regardless of its value) would be called “bright” here, and a color with a high value (regardless of its chroma) would be called “light” here.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Huffdogg

We use "bright" in combination with another color, but never on its own.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/I2cGAc67
I2cGAc67
  • 13
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7

As a native English speaker and American, I have to disagree with you. I am not disputing your own experience - if you have never heard people refer to bright colored objects, then you haven't - but I sure have.

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/megsterftw
megsterftw
  • 11
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 2

Fellow American, a "bright shirt" would indicate to me that it's garishly flashy colored, like neon.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Tetris102

Not Irish, but in Australia if we say something is 'bright', we usually mean the colour is not a pastel colour. We would also say a colour could be 'dull' if it isn't bright.

E.g. The highlighter had a bright green colour. But her grey shirt was very dull.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Nathan85554

Its the bright shirt

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TreasaWilson

"a" bright shirt, rather than "the" bright shirt. That would be "an léine gheal" .

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/I2cGAc67
I2cGAc67
  • 13
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7

I have a comment on the pronunciation of "gheal." Sounds a lot like English "yowl" rather than having a short "a" (like in apple) vowel sound. Given what I think I know about Irish pronunciation, I was expecting that "ea" would sound more like that short "a" in apple.

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

I'm surprised that you hear a sound like "yowl" in this exercise - it definitely sounds more like the "a" in apple to me.

The unrelated word geall does rhyme with "yowl" in Munster (especially in the phrase mar gheall).

http://www.teanglann.ie/en/fuaim/geal
http://www.teanglann.ie/en/fuaim/geall

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/I2cGAc67
I2cGAc67
  • 13
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7

Thanks for your reply. Good to get validation that "ea" in "gheal" is pronounced like English short a in apple, regardless of artifact of recording and how it came across to me (I did listen several times). Also appreciate the info about "gheall" and how it is pronounced in Munster. Cheers!

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TGallchoir

why does take a ' H ' ? what is the rule ?

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

The process of adding that h is called "lenition" and it's presence in this exercise is explained twice in the earlier comments.

You can also read more about lenition in the Tips & Notes for the Lenition skill

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TGallchoir

go raibh maith agat mo chara . Tigim anois é chuaigh mé ar ais aris.

2 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Kassie309172

Thank you «weak smil» I needed a little "anything" that just said someone, anyone thought I was important enough that they stopped in their own day/night, no matter what they were going through, and they just thought about mr positively, yá know? I'm just feeling so beatup right now...and the truth is, I don't even know why I deserved it. So.... there's that....

I guess I can't even send my kid off for therapy, like normal people, without her therapist turning on me? Remember how I used to think it was strange that she was suddenly going off every weekend? She eas seeing THIS therapist on a FRIDAY! She told me he eas saying those nasty things about me long before I placed her! Then he would hand her the bus passes. She would sit on the bus thinking sbout what he said ALL THE WAY HOME, & my weekend would suddenly look like it came out of s war movie...and I never saw it coming & never knew why! She was FINALLY just falling apart last night, spilling all the fresh tea! I couldn't believe what she eas saying! I stayed calm. I never allowed her to know I was upset. I simply reassured her how much I love her and told her we are getting a new therapist...but it wasn't her fault!

1 month ago