Translation:Shapes like triangles, circles and rectangles are used in mathematics.
The underlying sentence is "Shapes are used in mathematics". "Like" refers to examples or similar things or activities. The duo version groups "like" with the shapes and refers to the shapes by suggesting types as examples, "shapes like (such as) triangles, circles and rectangles" are used in mathematics. The way you suggest places like with usage (used like triangles (etc)). This suggests that shapes are used in mathematics the way triangles (etc) are used. That is the best description I can come up with for the difference.