"He is the most famous man."
Translation:Is é an fear is cáiliúla.
Superlative (and comparative) adjectives typically take the feminine genitive singular form.
What? Why does everyone on this speak like we're all professional linguists
Do you think you need to be a professional linguist to understand the word "superlative"? How about "noun", or "past tense"?
If you don't want to take the time to learn a dozen or so basic labels, then the simple answer to any "why?" question about grammar is just "Because." That's how most of us learned when to use "biggest" instead of "big" in our native language, after all.
Okay can someone explain the grammer of this to me, I can't seem to wrap my head around it.
Why not: "Is an fear is cáiliúla é"?
The introduction to an chopail in 'Basics 1' explicitly states: "The word you are talking about goes in the middle."
I know I'm probably being too rigid, but I just can't seem to understand this.
The notes in Basic 1 are a very brief introduction, and don't explain that "a definite noun is not allowed directly following the copula", so you can't say Is an fear é, and you handle that by inserting a subpredicate (é, í or iad), so you have Is é an fear é.
As freymuth's link shows, the reverse translation of this sentence uses Is é an fear is cáiliúla é. I don't know why the é at the end (which is actually the subject "he") was dropped in this exercise, but it is optional in Ulster Irish.
In the Ulster Irish form, the remaining é in Is é an fear is cáiliúla is the subject rather than the subpredicate.
I'm pretty sure that's a post-facto grammatical kludge to get around the fact that the é at the end has been dropped, rather than a fundamental grammatical difference between the dialects.
I see it as Ulster Irish using the word order for identificational copular sentences with first- and second-person pronoun subjects for sentences with third-person pronoun subjects as well.
EDIT: john703681, Is é an fear níos cáiliúla (é) means “He is the more famous man”.
Great explanation. Elsewhere there's "Is fear amaideach é" which is correct. So the following are all correct? "Is é an fear is cáiliúla" "Is é an fear is cáiliúla é" "Is fear cáiliúil é"
The main thing to remember is if you were to say [incorrect] "Is an fear is cáiliúla é" to someone, I don't think that there's any doubt that they'd understand you, just that it might sound stilted. (correct me if I'm wrong on that).
(Assuming your quote paraphrases http://nualeargais.ie/gnag/kopul5.htm ; I've seen that website cited a lot; is it the last word on grammar?)
No, because tá is not the copular form. The copula (is) serves to link two nouns (or a noun and a pronoun, like here).
Tá an fear cáiliul - The man is famous. (No second noun/pronoun)
Is é an fear cáiliul - He is a famous man. (He is linked to man, so you need the copula)
Umm... Is é an fear cáiliul. He is THE famous man. Not, He is A famous man. Right? Am I wrong here? And there should be an é at the end, right? Am I wrong? Would it be, Is fear cáiliul é, for, He is A famous man? I'm probably wrong here, eh?
Is fear cailiúil é - "He is a famous man"
Is é an fear cailiúil é - "He is the famous man"
Does anyone have a good way of explaining why sometimes we use "Is" and sometimes "Nios" in a way were i wont need a phd in rocket science or a map to understand. Thanks very much
níos is used for "more" or "-er" - níos fearr - "better", níos blasta - "more tasty" or "tastier".
is is used for "most" or "-est" - is fearr - "best", is blasta - "most tasty" or "tastiest".
Just wonderin. Does the use of is é suggest a permanent state? He may be the most famous now but for how long?
No — it’s a statement of identification, and is is what’s used to make statements of identification.
Thank you SatharnPHL. I should have waited until I got through the whole exercise.
A previous question put an additional è at the end of the sentance "Is è an fear is càiliùla è" Can anyone explain why this version doesnt have it?
Dialect. Grammatically speaking, the first é is a placeholder, and the second é is the real subject, but in Ulster Irish that second é is dropped and the first one becomes the de facto subject.
I'm confused. In a previous lesson I was required to use the first and the second é. Was marked wrong if I didn't. (I was only using the second é.) Now I used both and while I was given credit as having it right, it was only because I had a "typo"; the second é. The correct answer was given as just having the first é. What the heck!? What is the correct grammatical structure here? I don't understand it.
In spoken Irish, am I right in saying that the sentence would be pronounced 'Shay an..' rather than 'Is ay an'? If so, can that be written with an apostrophe; "' 'Sé an fear is cáiliúla" ? I think having " 'Sé " as a contraction of " Is + é " would actually make it easier to know whether a n " é " is needed at the start or end or bot.
I presume adding the 'é' to it emphasises the 'he'? So 'he' is the most famous man, not another man...
In your comment, you say that the second é is required, but on the multiple choice version I had both with and without offered as options and both were needed for my multiple choice to be correct.
Correct solutions: Is é an fear is cáiliúla., Is é an fear is cáiliúla é.
The second é isn’t required in Ulster Irish, but it is required in the other dialects (and in the written Caighdeán form).
It's confusing that the course is meant to be caighdeán but you are required to know what is possible in all dialects to answer correctly.
Not necessarily bad to know these things, I like to hear chonnacht related tips since i live there. But is the story of the course consistent?
Í should have said 'style'or'method'. Ie course teaches caighdeán but accepts dialectical answers when given by regs user, isn't that the case? But to answer here one must know both caighdeán and Ulster to select all correct answers.
If (as I suspect) the “Select the missing word” format and the “Translate this text” format are mere presentation variants of the same exercise, then this is another drawback of this particular Duolingo feature. (Another one is particularly evident in the Conditional skill, where several one-word answers in the “Select the missing word” format can be grammatically correct, but only one of them is treated as being correct — presumably because only the “Translate this text” format mentions what the preferred translation is.)
Anyone reading this needs to go to the link AnLonDubhBeag provided. The information in the link cleared up so much confusion I had had about my studies. Go raibh míle maith agat, a chara.
clúiteach is another adjective for famous and should be accepted as a correct answer in this case
Use the Report a Problem button to bring it to the attention of the course creators.
Why if I included nios is it wrong, I thought nios meant most and most is in the question
Níos is the comparative form (níos cáiliúla, 'more famous') while is is the superlative form (is cáiliúla, 'most famous').
Tá sé fear is simply ungrammatical Irish - you must use the copula is to link a pronoun ("he") and a noun ("man").
"famous" - cáiliúil
"more famous" - níos cáiliúla
"most famous" - is cáiliúla
A rather simple and silly question: Is the second "is" equivalent to "most" in English?
Yes! níos = more is = most
The first 'is' (Is é an fear) can be thought of as the verb 'to be', but isn't actually a verb; in grammatically terms, it's known as the 'copula' (from copulate!) The copula links two words together and indicates that they are equal, in this case, linking 'é' and 'an fear' => he is the man.
The 2nd 'is' in the sentence means 'most'. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/is#Irish suggests that in this usage, 'is' is "strictly speaking the relative of the copula", but you wouldn't think of it that way.
(If you did want to think of the 2nd 'is' in 'is cáiliúla' in terms of the copula, you could think of it linking 'an fear' and 'cáiliúla', with the interpretation that the sentence means that there is no possibility of any other thing occupying the category famousness; 'he is the man, the man is famousness' -> end of story!)
The simple answer to "Why not Is an fear cáiliúla mó é?" is that "Is an fear cáiliúla mó é" doesn't make any sense.
You can't have an next to the copula is. cailiúla is a plural or a genitive form of cailiúil, and there's nothing in your sentence to make it plural or genitive. I have no idea what role mó is supposed to be playing.
Sometimes you can see how someone arrived at an error, but this sentence looks like a mishmash, with stuff just thrown in at random. That's why I asked if you were serious. I can't see how you would have come up with that suggestion based on the other exercises on Duolingo. If you can explain why you thought the sentence worked, I might be able to give a more helpful answer.
I am at a loss for a explanation since the app doesn't give explanations for syntax either, but i will try my best.
I did accidently use the plural form of famous there. The word was just introduced in this lesson and I got the plural and singular forms mixed up. But as far as I was aware, the most famous man can translate as an fear cáiliúla mó. I have seen mó used before, perhaps not Duolingo, meaning most. And I think I am right for adjectives following the noun. As for using Is and é, I don't know how to justify it, I'm not a linguist. I have seen basic sentences like Is fear é before, so I used the syntax I have seen in the app. Using the bí verb felt wrong so I avoided it.
I had not seen the double IS used before with the second IS meaning MORE before this question. I think this is also the first superlative I have seen in Irish.
The superlative form of mór is is mó, and it generally means "biggest", but if you want to say "he has the most money", you say tá an méid is mó airgid aige - "he has the biggest amount of money". "Most of the people" is an chuid is mó de na daoine (the biggest share of the people). In both of those examples, is mó is qualifying a noun.
The "most" in "most famous" isn't an adjctve - it's an adverb that is modifying an adjective, but even if it was an adjective, Mó can't be used as an attributive adjective on it's own, and to form the superlative form of other adjectives, you use is with a genitive form of the adjective (the first person feminine genitive). So is cáiliúla - "most famous", is blasta - "tastiest", is troime - "heaviest", etc - mó isn't involved. It might be tempting to think of is as meaning "most" in this case, but it doesn't really, you need the whole phrase.
You have seen is fear é - "he is A man", which classifies "he" as a man, but this is "he is THE man" which identifies "he" as the man. The structure of classification sentences and identification sentences is different, and specifically, the definite article cannot come next to the copula is.
This isn't a "double IS", any more than a sentence with two ans is a "double AN" sentence. It's just a sentence that happens to have two entirely unrelated uses of is. You can say Tá an fear is cáilíula ag teacht - "the most famous man is coming, with just one is*.
is doesn't mean "more" (níos cáiliúla is "more famous").
That means that is mó can mean "biggest" when applied to a noun, bu
cáiliúil is already an adjective, so "most" isn't an adjective in "most famous".
I'm still surprised that you took a bunch of stuff that by your own admission you didn't really understand, threw it all together, and then were surprised that it was wrong.
cailula is the singular feminine genitive form of cailiúil, the plural nominative form of cailiúil, and the plural genitive form of cailiúil for strong plurals.
So you'll use cailula whenever you need the singular feminine genitive form of cailiúil, the plural nominative form of cailiúil, or the plural genitive form of cailiúil for strong plurals.
In practical terms, that means that you'll use cailula for the comparative (níos cailula - "more famous"), the superlative (is cailula - "most famous") and in most cases of plural attributive adjectives (na daoine cáiliúla - "the famous people").
In an earlier lesson there was another é at the end? What is the story here??
Just leave out the adjective cailiula for a moment.
You can't say Ta sé an fear - you are linking a pronoun (sé) and a noun (fear), so you have to use the copula - Is é an fear.
The adjective is just a decoration on the noun, it doesn't change the grammar that makes this a copular sentence.