"He and my mother are siblings."
Translation:Él y mi madre son hermanos.
Yes. For "Ella and mi madre" = son hermanas.
A group of females = grammar is female: hermanas.
A group of males = grammar is male.
A group of male(s) + female(s) = grammar is male: hermanos.
We don't have a different word for "siblings", it's translated as "brothers" = "hermanos".
Y makes an i sound so if before 'hi-' then must change to e for different sound or it won't be heard. The same reasoning goes for the 'o' and 'u' pairing.
You just use "e" instead of "y" because "y hija" is a hiatus, you have to put "e hija" to make it easy to pronounce (like the "a" in English, becoming "an".)
Yes, it's the same thing, but you have to respect the order in Duo, because sometimes, the order matter, and the software has been made to respect it in consequence.
"Y" is used for "and" except when it comes before a word starting with "i" or "h" when it changes to "e". - it's when the same sound as "y" follows that you change it to "e". The reason being that it is easier to say and be distinguished - otherwise the sounds all roll into one. e.g. padre e hijo (father and son)"
Why is it not "Él y A mi madre son hermanos"? I'm confused when to use the "personal a"
Because you can't add the "a", it's a different grammar structure.
A mi madre, le gusta la cerveza. = "To my mother" (the beer pleases)
Here it's "él y mi madre", as you would writre "él y ella", simply.
Second use for the particle "a" (it's not a "personal" but a "personal" particle) : you use it after a verb: Mira a Jena = Mira a ella. (verb mirar: to look at)