I'm wondering why:
n-úll - this has a dash between the letters
m'úll, and d'úll have an apostraphy between the letters
and húll dosen't have anything between them
The tips and notes explain that. This is the information for nouns starting with a vowel. my, your (sing) and his don't have anything added (aside from the possessive pronoun). But the "mo" and "do" do become "m' " and "d' " (because they're in front of a vowel).
When you are saying her apple, add the h directly "a húll", our apple, their apple or your (pl) apple, add n- "ár n-úll" "bhur n-úll" "a n-úll"
So.. Is the n- added when the subject is plural and when the object starts with a vowel? Just for these pronouns?
I'm not sure what you mean by "subject" in a phrase like "our apple".
When the possessive adjective is plural (ie "our", "your", "their"), the noun is eclipsed, or, if it starts with a vowel, gets an n- prefix.
I guess the dash is to differentiate eclipsed words from other words (which may be pronounced the same), and since it was more practical for some words they extended it to all (or it maybe increased reading speed because it cuts words out, so it was kept that way, or some combination of both)
Well, "m'úll" and "d'úll" are shortened from "mo úll" and "do úll" so there wouldn't be two vowels next to each other like that. Don't know about the dash; maybe whoever was in charge of standardizing the writing thought it looked better that way.