I'd like to know somethng : does Irish make a difference between BEEF ( the meat, like in English) and English OX ( which is the living animal in the pasture. or do you use the same word, like we do in French ( BOEUF. English uses different words for some animals, whether they are the living ones or their meat : BEEF ( from French BOEUF) is the meat. OX ( ( German OCHS) is the animal. MUTTON ( from French mouton) is the meat. SHEEP (German Schaf ) is the animal. VEAL ( from French veau) is the meat.CALF ( German Kalb) is the animal. PORC ( French porc) is the meat) PIG or SWINE ( German Schwein) is the animal. The French origin comes from the Norman-French invasion of Saxon England in 1066.
Irish does distinguish between "cow" and "beef" and between "pig" and "pork", etc. But unlike in English, where it was the peasantry and the Germanic "cow" vs the nobility and the French "beef", it's simply a matter of [animal] and [animal]-meat (plus a few sound changes).
So in Irish, "cow" is "bó" and "beef" is "mairteoil". "Pig" is "muc" and "pork" is "muiceoil". "Sheep" is "caoirigh", mutton is "caoireola". The second part of the compound words is "feoil", which means "meat".
Many thanks. I will copy that. I thought the Irish did not have the same words than the English because they were not invaded by the French of Normandy. But i wanted to make sure. Now, apart from BO which you say is COW ( it should have been BOS,BOEUF,BUEY) I don't see any relation with other Indo European languages, at least not with those I speak fluently ( French-German-Swiss German-English-Italian-Spanish-Portuguese). For instance where do MAIRTEOIL, CAOIRIGH etc come from? I know you have CU for dog ( like in CUCHULAIN) which is close to CAN in Spanish or Canis in Latin, but the rest is very strange indeed.
The Celtic languages are indeed Indo-European languages. If I had to guess, I would say that "bó" is cognate with "bovine".
I just looked it up, and believe it or not, "beef" and "cow" are also cognates with "bovine".
Never underestimate how many sound changes can happen given enough time.
As for "mairteoil" from "bó + feoil", it probably started with a lenition of the initial "b" to "m", along with other sound changes as the two words merged. Or more likely, the words that merged to become "mairteoil" changed over time to become "bó" and "feoil".
Now I found out that the origin of COW is proto Indo European "gwows" with the first "w" almost inaudible, cognate with sanskrit "go" This is for the Germanic languages. I will keep searching for the origin of the Romance languages : vache - vaca - Proto Slavic is " govedo" German : Kuh Swiss German : Chue (with "Ch" pronounced like the Spanish "Jota") I speak fluent German and Swiss German
Hi there and sorry if this has already been asked multiple times and/or in other treads, but as I am using the app (and I don't have any access to any laptop/computer) I cannot see the tips and I don't know/understand many things. Why "A portán" and "Do portán"? (that is lenition, isn't it?). Why "A húll" and "M'úll"? Why "Bhur mairteoil" and "Mo mhairteoil"? I mean, in which cases do you put the H and in which cases you don't? Is there any gramatical law? Thank you very much.
Lenition is the softening of a sound, indicated in writing with an H. For example, mairteoil vs mhairteoil. "A mairteoil" vs "do mairteoil" is "his beef" vs "your beef". Lenition and eclipsis do happen for grammatical reasons.
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