Why is it giving me a listening exercise when I haven't learned the word yet?
It's good practice for getting used to how the written and spoken languages compare to one another. You also have to engage your brain more to try and work out how the word could be written rather than passively learning it and, even if you get it wrong and lose a heart, you're more likely to remember how to use it correctly in future. :)
Are questions phrased as in German? (Meaning, to ask a question, is the verb simply put before the subject?)
Yes, in pretty much all Germanic languages. "Have you sugar?" is fine in English too.
The given answer is literally correct, but in English the question would be phrased as " have you any sugar?" or "Do you have any sugar?"