"Har du sukker?"
Translation:Do you have sugar?
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The given answer is literally correct, but in English the question would be phrased as " have you any sugar?" or "Do you have any sugar?"
Why is it giving me a listening exercise when I haven't learned the word yet?
It's good practice for getting used to how the written and spoken languages compare to one another. You also have to engage your brain more to try and work out how the word could be written rather than passively learning it and, even if you get it wrong and lose a heart, you're more likely to remember how to use it correctly in future. :)
Are questions phrased as in German? (Meaning, to ask a question, is the verb simply put before the subject?)
Yes, in pretty much all Germanic languages. "Have you sugar?" is fine in English too.
Why does the verb go at the beginning? I thought danish was V2 language where the verb was placed second. Can someone please help me with this, thanks.
You are right about Danish being V2. However in questions like this the word order is changed.
This is a boring example of translationese. However, "Have you sugar? is not accepted, along with sensible, normal English like, "Have you any sugar?" or "Do you take sugar?" Not a very promising start to my learning Danish.